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The optimistic implication of hand-dug wells in water resources development and handling in Ethiopia, a developing economy, such as in Guna Tana landscape

Abstract

Hand-dug wells can range in depth from roughly 5 meters to more than 20 meters. Hand‑dug wells can range top to bottom from about 5 m depth, to deep wells more than 20 m. Wells with a depth of more than 30 m are now and then developed to exploit a known aquifer. It is unrealistic to excavate a well that is less than a meter in measurement; an excavation of about 1.5 m in breadth gives adequate working space to the diggers and will permit a final internal diameter of about 1.2 m after the well has been lined. The wells tap water from shallow aquifers for residential water use, small enterprises, and small water system plans. Many hand-dug wells exist in the Guna Tana landscape. They are significant in both urban and rural communities. The wells are dug by hand and confined to digging ground, such as muds, sands, rock, and blended soils where just small stones are encountered. Some communities utilize the ability and information on nearby well diggers; however regularly, the excavation is completed, under oversight, by the locals themselves. Well development cost is modest, as low-scale innovation and labor are utilized. Problems with hand-dug wells incorporate susceptibility to contamination/sullying; extraordinary decreases in water level during the dry season; low good yields; silting up of wells; and collapsing or crumbling of well dividers, and so forth. New plans are proposed to improve the effectiveness and execution of this old innovation. In the Guna Tana Landscape, wells ought to be finished in April and May when the water level is deepest. Well yield is improved by utilizing slotted concrete rings to screen the aquifer. Anti-contamination devices are likewise proposed for better water quality. Such wells would give more consumable water to the urban and provincial poor. An improved sort of opened/slotted solid concrete ring has been intended for use in the screened portion of the well. Non-perforated solid rings are utilized in the non-productive portion of the aquifer or over the water table, to prevent collapsing or falling of well walls. A convex spread structure is a defensive edge stretching out past the boundary of the well, to prevent the entrance of surface contaminants. Water from the dug wells is pumped through an external filtration system into an overhead stockpiling/treatment tank utilizing a modest pumping system. These structures are proposed to improve the effectiveness of the wells, to give strength to the wells and better well yield, and to diminish the frequency of contamination/pollution inside the well and its general condition.

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MSK* (CA) and RA Mesalie conceived the presented idea. Both authors developed the theory and performed the computations.

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Correspondence to Mekash Shiferaw Kifelew.

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Kifelew, M.S., Mesalie, R.A. The optimistic implication of hand-dug wells in water resources development and handling in Ethiopia, a developing economy, such as in Guna Tana landscape. Sustain. Water Resour. Manag. 7, 91 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-021-00567-z

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Keywords

  • Hand-dug well
  • Well development
  • Well depth
  • Wells yield
  • Guna Tana landscape