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Notes on morphology and spatio-temporal distribution of early-stage juveniles of Acanthopagrus pacificus (Sparidae) in the estuary of northern Vietnam


Acanthopagrus pacificus is a commercially important fish in the coasts of western Pacific. Its early stages show potential variation in morphology and seasonal occurrences by different oceanography, even though little work has been reported. This study aims to provide morphological characteristics and spatio-temporal distribution patterns of early-stage juveniles of this species in the estuary [Tien Yen (ca. 21° 20′ N)] of northern Vietnam, which is located in the middle region of the distributional range. They were characterized by the presence of prominent supracleithral and posttemporal spines, relatively deeper body, large head and eyes, which useful to distinguish them from other Acanthopagrus early juveniles. The juveniles appeared in April, reflecting the seasonal occurrence around winter and spring in northern Vietnam. They occurred in the waters where salinity ranged from < 0.05 to 16.6 PSU, respectively. This result indicates A. pacificus early juveniles that colonized the shallow banks of the estuary extended to freshwater habitat.

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Data availability

The datasets generated during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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We are thankful I. Kinoshita and T.T. Ta for their assistance with this study. All surveys in this study were performed according to the current laws of Vietnam. We are grateful to D.M. Guarte (marine biologist) for correcting the English manuscript.


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All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, samplings were performed by TTT and HDT. TTT analyzed the fish specimens and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Thanh Trung Tran.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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This is an observational study. All surveys in this study were performed according to the current laws of Vietnam.

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All surveys in this study were performed according to the current laws of Vietnam.

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All authors have agreed to submit this manuscript to Sustainable Water Resources Management.

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Tran, T.T., Tran, H.D. & Nguyen, N.T. Notes on morphology and spatio-temporal distribution of early-stage juveniles of Acanthopagrus pacificus (Sparidae) in the estuary of northern Vietnam. Sustain. Water Resour. Manag. 7, 80 (2021).

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  • Early stages
  • Northern Vietnam estuary
  • Pacific seabream
  • Sparine fishes