Energy analysis and water conservation measures by water audit at thermal power stations

Abstract

Water and energy are sources to fulfill the essential needs of human life for their livelihood. Currently, steam-based power plants utilize water sources such as rivers and lakes. In India, the consumption of water by industries is about 9% of the total, of which power generation sector utilizes 88% of the share. This study examines the quantitative and qualitative analysis of water consumption in power plants to determine the energy losses and water conservation opportunities to reduce, reuse, and recycle water. A typical water audit case study was carried out at specific coal-based Super Thermal Power Station (STPS) in India. The STPS chosen for the study has a commissioned capacity of 3000 MW having three stages of 1 GW each with a total of 6 units having 500 MW each. The present study includes the analysis of overall specific consumption of the plant, ash–water ratio, and cycles of concentration along with the blowdown water quantity along with other water losses. Also, exergy analysis of main water pumps is included, which is ranging from 46 to 67% for Stage-I. Based on the flow and power measurements and overall review of water consumption in the plant water and energy conservation opportunities are suggested which can yield savings up to INR 725.43 lakhs per annum INR (Indian Rupees) with an investment of INR 457 lakhs per annum expecting the payback period to be within a year.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    The Falkenmark indicator is developed by Malin Falkenmark and is one of the most widely used indicators for assessing the stress on water. It relates the total freshwater resources with the total population in a country and indicates the pressure the population puts on water resources, including the needs for natural ecosystems (Lallana et al. 2004).

Abbreviations

IFPRI:

International Food Policy Research Institute

GoI:

Government of India

ICAR:

Indian Council for Agricultural Research

TERI:

The Energy and Resources Institute

WRI:

World Resources Institute

CEA:

Central Electricity Authority

RES:

Renewable Energy Sources

MoEF&CC:

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change

IEA:

International Energy Agency

US:

United States

CPCB:

Central Pollution Control Board

CEA:

Central Electricity Authority

CW:

Condenser water or cooling water

COC:

Cycles of concentration

RO:

Reverse osmosis

PLF:

Plant load factor

VFD:

Variable frequency drive

CEP:

Condensate Extraction Pump

BFP:

Boiler Feed Pump

LT:

Low tension

HT:

High tension

NABL:

National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories

STPS:

Super Thermal Power Station

UP:

Uttar Pradesh

J&K:

Jammu & Kashmir

HP:

Himachal Pradesh

ACW:

Auxiliary cooling water

DM:

Demineralization

RW:

Raw water

AWRS:

Ash Water Recycling System

CHP:

Coal handling plant

ADPH:

Ash water pump house

SWC:

Specific water consumption

Aux.:

Auxiliary water requirement

CT:

Cooling tower

APH:

Air pre-heater

LWTP:

Liquid waste treatment plant

DOE:

Design of experiment statistics

m3 :

Cubic meter

m3/capita/year:

Cubic meter per person per year

GW:

Gigawatt

m3/day:

Cubic meter per day

m3/MWh:

Cubic meter per megawatt-hour

TWh:

Terawatt hour

BCM:

Billion cubic meter

MLD:

Million liters per day

m3/h:

Cubic meter per hour

m3/sec:

Cubic meter per second

m3/day:

Cubic meter per day

INR:

Indian Rupees

kW:

Kilowatt

kg/m3 :

Kilogram per cubic meter

M:

Meter

m/sec2 :

Meter per square second

MPa:

Mega pascal

kPa:

Kilo pascal

K:

Kelvin

℃:

Degree centigrade

kJ/kg:

Kilo joule per kilogram

NTU:

Nephelometric turbidity unit

mg/l:

Milligram per litre

mho/cm:

Mho per centimeter

BDL:

Below detection limit

HP:

Horsepower

V:

Volts

A:

Amperes

kWh:

Kilowatt-hour

I:

Current in ampere

R:

Resistance in ohm

ZLD:

Zero liquid discharge

TDS:

Total dissolved solids

RO:

Reverse osmosis

CMB:

Central monitoring basin

BAHP:

Bottom ash high pressure

BALP:

Bottom ash low pressure

TPP:

Thermal power plants

WHO:

World Health Organization

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Correspondence to Yendaluru Raja Sekhar.

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Nandini, M., Raja Sekhar, Y. & Subramanyam, G. Energy analysis and water conservation measures by water audit at thermal power stations. Sustain. Water Resour. Manag. 7, 3 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-020-00487-4

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Keywords

  • Water audit
  • Thermal power plants
  • Energy conservation
  • Cost savings
  • Payback