Characterization and benchmarking of seven managed aquifer recharge systems in south-western Europe
- 394 Downloads
The European MARSOL project includes different examples of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facilities in the Mediterranean area. A methodical characterization of the whole recharge process has been carried out to ensure that all functions and facilities are clearly comparable independent of size, budget or location. The seven selected MAR demo sites are located in two countries. Four are in Portugal—Rio Seco and Noras (Campina de Faro Aquifer), S. Bartolomeu de Messines and Cerro do Bardo (Querença-Silves) in Algarve, and three are in Spain—Llobregat (Catalonia), Santiuste and El Carracillo (Castilla y León). The systems have been defined using a form divided into four sections, including alpha-numerical data, orthophotographs, sketches and schedules. A first draft using a bibliography was reviewed by the authors, who recorded a detailed analysis and further reports to complete the characterization, as shown in several tables. The article covers MAR benchmarking serial steps for infrastructure measurements (surfaces, lengths, facilities, costs), functions categorization (transport, infiltration, treatment, restoration) and evolution in time and space (maps, sketches and calendars). MAR measuring displays contrasting interpretations depending on scale. The benchmarking process was found to be difficult to apply to seven sites with different sizes, aims, operational procedures and time scales. However, some parameters, such as mean infiltration rate, have shown their potential as management decision tools in the long term. Mediterranean areas, characterized by water supply irregularity, which is likely to be exacerbated by climate change models, can benefit from the use of MAR as a water management technique and from its diverse functions, although these objectives have not generally been attached to recharge. Null energy cost and low initial investment can also play important roles in boosting MAR development as a feasible alternative in short-term water planning.
KeywordsManaged aquifer recharge (MAR) Groundwater quality Benchmarking Mediterranean climate Water management Climate change
This article has been developed and written within the framework of the MARSOL project (Demonstrating Managed Aquifer Recharge as a Solution to Water Scarcity and Drought FP7, http://www.marsol.eu, GA 119120), financed by the European Commission and Tragsa Group. The authors wish to thank Ms. Miren San-Sebastián and Mr. James Haworth who assisted in proof-reading the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Camp R (1989) Benchmarking: the search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance. ASQC Productivity Press. New York. USA. ISBN 9781563273520Google Scholar
- CETaqua, Centro Tecnológico del Agua (2013) Enhancement of soil aquifer treatment to improve the quality of recharge water in the Llobregat River Delta Aquifer Life + ENSAT project 2010–2012 Layman’s Report. Barcelona, SpainGoogle Scholar
- Costa L et al (2015) Estimating harvested rainwater at greenhouses in South Portugal aquifer Campina de Faro for potential infiltration in managed aquifer recharge. Geophys Res 17. http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2015/EGU2015-10415-3.pdf (EGU2015-10415-3, 2015 EGU General Assembly).
- Fernández-Escalante E, Sánchez RC, Hernández ML (2013) Environmental education criteria applied to hydrogeology and specially to managed aquifer recharge. A strategic proposition and some examples for Spain. ML Environ Earth Sci 70:2009. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-013-2711-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fernández-Escalante E (2005) Recarga artificial de acuíferos en cuencas fluviales. Aspectos cualitativos y medioambientales. Criterios técnicos derivados de la experiencia en la Cubeta de Santiuste, Segovia. PhD Thesis. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. ISBN13: 978-84-669-2800-7$4Google Scholar
- Fernández-Escalante F, San-Sebastián-Sauto J (2012) Rechargeable sustainability. The key is the storage. Tragsa Ed. Madrid, p 126. ISBN 10:84-615-8704-9 / 13: 978-84-615-8704-9 AQ17Google Scholar
- Fernández-Escalante E et al (2015) Los Arenales demonstration site characterization. Report on the Los Arenales pilot site improvements. MARSOL Project deliverable 5–1, 2015-03-31 (restricted publication). MARSOL-ECGoogle Scholar
- Hamann E, Stuyfzand PJ, Greskowiak J, Timmer H, Massmann G (2015) The fate of organic micropollutants during long-term/long-distance river bank filtration. Sci Total Environ 545–546:629–640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.057
- ITA (Instituto Tecnológico Agrario) (2013) Plan de monitorización de los cultivos de regadío en Castilla y León. Resultados de la Encuesta de cultivos de la campaña 2012. Consejería de Agricultura y Ganadería. Junta de Castilla y León. Valladolid. Spain http://www.inforiego.org/opencms/export/system/modules/es.jcyl.ita.site.inforiego/elements/galleries/galeria_downloads/2013-05-23_Informe_ANUAL_Encuesta_CCRR_2012.pdf. Accessed 19 Apr 2016
- Kajisa K, Dong B (2015) The effects of volumetric pricing policy on farmers’ water management institutions and their water use. The case of water user organization in an irrigation system in Hubei, China. Policy Research Working Paper; No. 7369. World Bank, Washington, DC. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/22453 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO. Accessed 19 Apr 2016
- Larsson M et al (2002) Process benchmarking in the water industry. IWA, UKGoogle Scholar
- Levantesi C, La Mantia R, Masciopinto C, Böckelmann U, Ayuso-Gabella MN, Salgot M, Grohmann E (2010) Quantification of pathogenic microorganisms and microbial indicators in three wastewater reclamation and managed aquifer recharge facilities in Europe. Sci Total Environ 408(21):4923–4930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ferreira JPL, Leitao TE (2014) Demonstrating managed aquifer recharge as a solution for climate change adaptation: results from Gabardine project and asemwaterNet coordination action in the Algarve region (Portugal) Acque Sotterranee. Ital J Groundw AS10040:15–22Google Scholar
- Miret M, Vilanova E, Molinero J, Sprenger C (2012) Managed aquifer recharge in the european legal framework. DEMEAU Work Package 12 Report. http://demeau-fp7.eu/sites/files/D121%20legal%20framework%20and%20MAR%20DEMEAU%20project_1.pdf. Accessed 19 Apr 2016
- Petrovic M, de Alda MJ, Diaz-Cruz S, Postigo C, Radjenovic J, Gros M, Barcelo D (2009) Fate and removal of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in conventional and membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plants and by riverbank filtration. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 367(1904):3979–4003. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2009.0105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reichard E, Johnson T (2005) Assessment of regional management strategies for controlling seawater intrusion. J Water Resour Plann Manage. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496.(2005)131:4(280) Google Scholar
- San-Sebastián-Sauto J, Fernández-Escalante E, González-Herralte F (2015) La demanda gestionada en Santiuste: 13 años de usos y servicios múltiples para la comunidad rural. Tierras Riego nº 234:78–85Google Scholar
- Sedighi A, Klammler H, Brown C, Hatfield K (2006) A semi-analytical model for predicting water quality from an aquifer storage and recovery system. J Hydrol V329(3–4):403–412Google Scholar