Skip to main content
Log in

Are natural dyes eco-friendly? A case study on water usage and wastewater characteristics of batik production by natural dyes application

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Sustainable Water Resources Management Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The pollution caused by the highly colored synthetic dyes and an excessive use of water by batik home-based industries has been arising a problem of water scarcity. Therefore, recently some batik entrepreneurs have started to use natural dyes for batik dyeing as natural dyes are considered to be eco-friendly. However, studies regarding the environmental aspect of natural dye application are very limited. Hence, this research aimed to examine the efficiency of water usage by batik industry and the characteristics of batik wastewater containing natural dye extract. The result showed that the industry used water in a volume of 17.93 L per piece of batik cloth, where most of the water was mainly used for washing process. Although it is considered to be efficient in comparison to the benchmark, the use of water for batik production could be reduced. Other results showed that the concentration of TSS, BOD5, COD exceeded the Quality Standard for Textile Effluent set by The World Bank. Although natural dyes were found to be biodegradable, the BOD5/COD ratio implies that the wastewater was not subjected to biodegradation. Moreover, accumulation of pollutant was found to cause adverse impact to the aquatic system in the form of eutrophication. Although wastewater treatment is needed, education on water issues to local community and batik entrepreneurs, water conservation planning and practices, and environmental impact assessment are required to achieve a more sustainable water use by the cooperation among the government, local community, batik entrepreneurs, university, and Non-Governmental Organizations.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

(Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information 2017)

Fig. 2

(Source: personal documentation)

Fig. 3

(Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. c Chemical structure of Ellagic Acid (Pubchem. CID 5281855) (Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information 2017)

Fig. 4

(Source: personal documentation)

Fig. 5
Scheme 1
Fig. 6

(Source: personal documentation)

Fig. 7

(Source: personal documentation)

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Ahn C, Zeng X, Li L, Obendorf SK (2014) Thermal degradation of natural dyes and their analysis using HPLC-DAD-MS. Fash Text 1:22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40691-014-0022-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bag A, Bhattacharyya SK, Chattopadyay RR (2013) The development of Terminalia chebula Retz (Combretaceae) in clinical research. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 3(3):244–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60059-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chapman D, Kimstach V (1996) Selection of water quality variables. In: Chapman D (ed) Water quality assessments: a guide to use of biota, sediments, and water in environmental monitoring. WHO, Cambridge

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Devi S, Murugappan A, Kannan RR (2015) Sorption of reactive blue 19 onto freshwater algae and seaweed. Desalination Water Treat 54(9):2611–2624. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330903370018

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dey S, Bhattacharjee S, Chaudhuri MG, Bose RS, Halder S, Ghosh CK (2015) Synthesis of pure nickel (III) oxide nanoparticles at room temperature for Cr (VI) ion removal. RSC Adv 5:54717–54726. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5ra05810d

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • EKONID (German-Indonesian Chamber of Commerce) (2012) EU-Switch asia program: clean batik initiative (Second Year Achievement Report). EKONID, Jakarta

    Google Scholar 

  • Enderlein US, Enderlein RE, Williams WP (1997) Water quality requirements. In: Helmer R, Hespanhol I (eds) Water pollution control—a guide to the use of water quality management. Published on behalf of WHO-UNEP-Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council. E & FN Spon, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Felaza E, Priadi CR (2016) Implementation of cleaner production in a natural dye batik industry SME: a way to enhance biodegradability of Batik wastewater. MATEC Web Conf 62:1–5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ghaly MY, Hartel G, Haseneder L (2009) Integrated coupled sytems as biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater by photo-fenton process. AFINIDAD LXVI 543:420–428

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamzuri (1981) Classical batik. Djambatan, Jakarta

    Google Scholar 

  • Handayani W, Meitiniarti VI, Timotius KH (2007) Decolorization of acid red 27 and reactive red 2 by Enterococcus faecalis under a batch system. World J Microb Biotechnol 23:1239–1244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-007-9355-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Handayani W, Hunga AIR, Kristijanto AI (2016) Potret Batik Ramah Lingkungan dalam Bingkai Produksi Berkelanjutan (The Image of Eco-friendly Batik in the Frame of Sustainable Production). In: Hunga A.I.R, Candraningrum D (eds) Matra SDG’s (Sustainable Development Goals) dalam Penghapusan Kekerasan, Trafficking, dan Pemberdayaan Ekonomi (The Dimension of Sustainable Development Goals in the Abolition of Violence, Trafficking, and Economic Empowerment). ASWGI-Universitas Sriwijaya-Kementerian Pemberdayaan Perempuan & Perlindungan Anak, Palembang

    Google Scholar 

  • Hemmatzadeh R, Mohammadi A (2013) Improving optical absorptivity of natural dyes for fabrication of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. J Theor Appl Phys 7:57

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jones JAA (2010) Water sustainability: a global perspective. Routledge, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Khataee AR, Zarei M, Pourhassan M (2009) Application of microalga Chlamydomonas sp. for biosorptive removal of a textile dye from contaminated water: modelling by a neural network. Environ Technol 30(14):1615–1623

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kruis F (1995) Environmental chemistry selected analytical methods: laboratory manual, 2nd edn. IHE, Delft, pp 45–56

    Google Scholar 

  • Lim SL, Chu WL, Phang SM (2010) Use of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile wastewater. Biores Technol 101:7314–7322

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maulik R, Bhowmik L, Agarwal K (2014) Batik on handloom cotton fabric with natural dye. IJTK 13(4):788–794

    Google Scholar 

  • Mirjalili M, Abbasipour M (2013) Comparison between antibacterial activity of some natural dyes and silver nanoparticles. J NanostructChem 3:37

    Google Scholar 

  • National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID = 5280343 (2017) https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/5280343. Accessed 29 Mar 2017

  • National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID = 5281855 (2017) https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/5281855. Accessed 29 Mar 2017

  • National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Substance Database; SID = 24865242 (2017) https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/substance/24865242. Accessed 29 Mar 2017)

  • Nurdalia I (2006) Kajian dan Analisis Peluang Penerapan Produksi Bersih pada Usaha Kecil Batik Cap: Studi kasus pada tiga usaha industri kecil batik cap di Pekalongan (The study and opportunity analysis on implementation of cleaner production in small stamped batik business: a case study on three small stamped batik industries in Pekalongan). Master Thesis, Diponegoro University. Indonesia

  • Pereira LS, Cordery I, Iacovides I (2002) Coping with water scarcity (technical documents in hydrology). UNESCO, Paris

    Google Scholar 

  • Püntener A, Page C (2004) European Ban on Certain Azo Dyes. TFL Leather & Technology Ltd. https://wwot.destcorp.com/documents/Azo_Dye_Information.pdf. Accessed 27 July 2016

  • Rashidi HR, Sulaiman NMN, Hashim NA (2012) Batik industry synthetic wastewater treatment using nanofiltration membrane. Proc Eng 44:2010–2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2012.09.025

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ratih YW, Santosa PB, Muryani E (2015) Pengaruh Limbah Industri Batik Menggunakan Pewarna Alami dari Desa Wukirsari Terhadap Viabilitas Bakteri Tanah (The Effect of Batik Industry’s Wastewater by Natural Dyes Application from Wukirsari Village to the Viability of Soil Bacteria). Jurnal Tanah Air 11(1):1–13

    Google Scholar 

  • Rizza R (2013) Hubungan antara Kondisi Fisik Sumur Gali dengan Kadar Nitrit Air Sumur Gali di Sekitar Sungai Tempat Pembuangan Limbah Cair Batik. Unnes J Public Health 2(3):1–10

    Google Scholar 

  • Saxena S, Raja ASM (2014) Natural dyes: sources, application, chemistry and sustainability issues. In: Muthu SS (ed) Roadmap to sustainable textiles and clothing. Springer, Singapore, pp 37–80

    Google Scholar 

  • Soebaryo RW (2012) Batik manufacturing workers. In: Rustemeyer T, Elsner P, Swan-Malte J, Maibach HI (eds) Kanerva’s occupational dermatology. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 1289–1295

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Subki NS, Hashim R, Muslim NZ (2014) Heavy metals analysis of batik industry wastewater, plant, and soil samples: a comparison study of FAAS and HACH colorimeter analytical capabilities. In: Aris AZ et al (eds) From sources to solution. Springer, Singapore, pp 285–289

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Susanty A, Hartini S, Puspitasari D, Arsiwi P (2015) Measuring efficiency of using resource in the production process of making stamped-batik: a DEA approach. Mediterr J Soc Sci 6(5):318–327. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n5s2p318

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • The World Bank (1999) pollution prevention and abatement handbook 1998: toward cleaner production. The World Bank Group, Washington DC

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • World Health Organization (2006) Guidelines for drinking-water quality: first addendum to third edition, (Vol. 1, recommendations). WHO, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would gratefully acknowledge Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia, who supported this research by Beasiswa Unggulan Program Mandiri 2015 Scholarship. We would also like to offer our gratitude to Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana for giving us permission to conduct the laboratory research. Acknowledgement is also given to Stefanus Agung and Chairul Anwar for technical helps, and to Maria Rosalia Bukit and Toar Sumakul for manuscript corrections.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Widhi Handayani.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Handayani, W., Kristijanto, A.I. & Hunga, A.I.R. Are natural dyes eco-friendly? A case study on water usage and wastewater characteristics of batik production by natural dyes application. Sustain. Water Resour. Manag. 4, 1011–1021 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-018-0217-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-018-0217-9

Keywords

Navigation