Managed aquifer recharge and sedimentological characterization within the complex esker deposits in Pälkäne, Finland
- 30 Downloads
It is proposed to construct a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) plant (capacity of 70,000 m3/day) to provide potable water for over 300,000 inhabitants in Tampere and Valkeakoski region in Southern Finland. The plant includes the infiltration of surface water in a Quaternary glaciofluvial ridge (esker) with subsequent withdrawal of the water from downstream wells. We present the sedimentological characterization and rearranged MAR design of the 3 km long unconfined esker aquifer in Pälkäne (capacity of 20,000 m3/day) that were needed to overcome the effect of discontinuities in the hydraulic connections along the Taustiala bedrock threshold as implied by a non-operational preliminary one-layer groundwater flow model. A more detailed sedimentological characterization was obtained by ground penetrating radar and a tracer test indicating flow paths and residence times of the infiltrated water. Four main hydrogeological units were distinguished. The bedrock threshold divides the groundwater flow into two preferred flow paths. The sedimentological interpretation was applied to determine the variation of hydraulic conductivities for the new seven-layer groundwater flow modeling. Sedimentological information together with hydrogeological studies was used in designing the sites and capacities for infiltration and withdrawal.
KeywordsManaged aquifer recharge Esker Aquifer Sedimentology Ground penetrating radar Depositional model Hydrogeology Groundwater flow model
We thank the personnel of the groundwater department at Pöyry Finland Ltd. for co-operation during the test trials and reporting and for preparation of maps. We also thank Suvi Rinne (FCG Ltd.) for preparation of maps.
JM did the sedimentological characterization and is the main writer of the paper; EK and PJ provided the information and expertise on MAR design, groundwater investigations, and flow modeling.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest. The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.
- Artimo A, Saraperä S, Puurunen O and Mäkinen J (2010) The Turku Region Artificial Infiltration Project, Finland—tools for enhanced aquifer characterization. In: Proceedings of the 7th international symposium on managed aquifer recharge of groundwater (ISMAR7), Abu Dhabi, 9–13 October, 2010, pp 93–100Google Scholar
- Artimo A, Saraperä S, Puurunen O (2011) Pälkäneen Syrjänharjun monikerroksinen pohjaveden virtausmalli. Raportti 18.3.2011, p 14 (The multi-layer groundwater flow model of the Syrjänharju area in Pälkäne, unpublished report, in Finnish)Google Scholar
- Bridge JS, Hyndman DW (2004) Aquifer characterization. SEPM Special Publication 80, 176 ppGoogle Scholar
- Eronen M, Haila H (1990) The main ancient shorelines. In Atlas of Finland, Alalammi P (eds) National Board of Survey, Geographical Society of Finland: Helsinki, Finland; Folio 124, Geology, Surficial deposits, Figure 17a, p 17Google Scholar
- Helmisaari HS, Derome J, Hatva T, Illmer K, Kitunen V, Lindroos A-J, Miettinen I, Pääkkönen J, Reijonen R (2005) Artificial recharge in Finland through basin and sprinkling infiltration: soil processes, retention time and water quality. In: Recharge systems for protecting and enhancing groundwater resources, Proceedings of the 5th international symposium on management of aquifer recharge, ISMAR5, Berlin, Germany, 11–16 June 2005. UNESCO IHP-VI, Series on Groundwater No. 13, pp 617–623Google Scholar
- Jokela P, Valtonen J (2010) Managed aquifer recharge and public participation. In: Proceedings of the 7th international symposium on managed aquifer recharge (ISMAR7), Abu Dhabi, 9–13 October 2010Google Scholar
- Kolehmainen R (2008) Natural organic matter biodegradation and microbial community dynamics in artificial groundwater recharge. Dissertation. Tampere University of Technology, Publication 781, Tampere, FinlandGoogle Scholar
- Mäkinen J (2003b) Development of depositional environments within the interlobate Säkylänharju-Virttaankangas glaciofluvial complex in SW Finland. Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae Geologica-Geographica 165:1–65Google Scholar
- Pöyry Ltd. (2011) Tavase Oy imeytys- ja merkkiainekoe Pälkäneellä, loppuraportti. 30.3.2011. Pöyry Finland Oy. (Tavase Ltd. Infiltration and tracer test in Pälkäne, final report, Pöyry Finland Ltd., in Finnish)Google Scholar
- Sharpe DR, Hinton MJ, Russell HAJ, Desbarats AJ (2002) The need for basin analysis in regional hydrogeological studies: Oak Ridges Moraine, Southern Ontario. Geosci Can 29:3–20Google Scholar