Adolescent Research Review

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 149–168 | Cite as

Psychosocial Interventions for Mental Illness among LGBTQIA Youth: A PRISMA-Based Systematic Review

  • Emily Van Der Pol-Harney
  • John McAloonEmail author
Systematic Review


Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex and Asexual (LGBTQIA) youth experience a unique range of psychosocial stressors often culminating in poor mental health outcomes. A systematic review of trials that evaluated psychosocial interventions for LGBTQIA youth aged 12–25 was undertaken to evaluate the effect of treatment components and participant-related variables on treatment outcome. The results suggest that creating safe, accepting places, discussion of shared experiences, and using a cognitive behavioural or attachment-based family therapy framework significantly decreased depression, sexual minority stress, anxiety and drug and alcohol use, and enhanced participant approval. LGBTQIA youth had poorer baseline mental health than non-LGBTQIA youth and experienced greater improvements. Further experimental research is needed to define effective treatment components and relevant individual factors to maximise treatment efficacy.


LGBTQIA LGBT Youth Treatment Minority stress Mental health Review 


Author contributions

EVDPH conceived of the study, participated in the design and coordination of the study, conducted the review and interpretation of the data, and drafted the manuscript; UM was the second reviewer in the full-text review process; JM participated in conceiving the study, its design, coordination and interpretation, and helped draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflict of interest.


  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Integrative guide for the 1991 CBCL/4-18, YSR, and TRF profiles. Burlington: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  2. Alessi, E. J. (2014). A framework for incorporating minority stress theory into treatment with sexual minority clients. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 18(1), 47–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: APA DSM-IV.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: APA DSM-IV-TR.Google Scholar
  5. Asscheman, H., Giltay, E. J., Megens, J. A., de Ronde, W., Van Trotsenburg, M., & Gooren, L. J. (2011). A long-term follow-up study of mortality in transsexuals receiving treatment with cross-sex hormones. European Journal of Endocrinology, 164(4), 635–642.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Austin, A., Craig, S. L., & D’Souza, S. A. (2018). An AFFIRMative cognitive behavioral intervention for transgender youth: preliminary effectiveness. Professional Psychology-Research and Practice, 49(1), 1–8. Scholar
  7. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2007). National survey of mental health and wellbeing (No.4235.0). Canberra: ACT.Google Scholar
  8. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2014). Leading causes of death by sex and age group, 2012–2014. Accessed 3 Jan 2018.
  9. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck depression inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  10. Beck, J. S., Beck, A. T., Jolly, J. B., & Steer, R. A. (2005). Beck youth inventories: For children and adolescents. San Antonia: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  11. Birkett, M., Espelage, D. L., & Koenig, B. (2009). LGB and questioning students in schools: The moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(7), 989–1000.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Bontempo, D. E., & D’Augelli, A. R. (2002). Effects of at-school victimization and sexual orientation on lesbian, gay, or bisexual youths’ health risk behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30(5), 364–374.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Youth risk behaviour surveillance—United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 61(4), 11–12.Google Scholar
  14. Cochran, S. D., Sullivan, J. G., & Mays, V. M. (2003). Prevalence of mental disorders, psychological distress, and mental health services use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(1), 53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Connolly, M. D., Zervos, M. J., Barone, C. J., Johnson, C. C., & Joseph, C. L. (2016). The mental health of transgender youth: Advances in understanding. Journal of Adolescent Health, 59(5), 489–495.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Craig, S. L. (2013). Affirmative supportive safe and empowering talk (ASSET): Leveraging the strengths and resiliencies of sexual minority youth in school-based groups. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 7(4), 372–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Craig, S. L., & Austin, A. (2016). The AFFIRM open pilot feasibility study: A brief affirmative cognitive behavioral coping skills group intervention for sexual and gender minority youth. Children and Youth Services Review, 64, 136–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Craig, S. L., Austin, A., & McInroy, L. B. (2014). School-based groups to support multiethnic sexual minority youth resiliency: Preliminary effectiveness. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 31(1), 87–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. D’augelli, A. R. (2002). Mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths ages 14 to 21. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 7(3), 433–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. D’Augelli, A. R. (2003). Lesbian and bisexual female youths aged 14 to 21: Developmental challenges and victimization experiences. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 7(4), 9–29.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. De Vries, A. L., McGuire, J. K., Steensma, T. D., Wagenaar, E. C., Doreleijers, T. A., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2014). Young adult psychological outcome after puberty suppression and gender reassignment. Pediatrics, 134(4), 696–704.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Derogatis, L. R., & Spencer, P. (1993). Brief symptom inventory: BSI. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Google Scholar
  23. Derrogatis, L., Lipman, R., & Covi, I. (1973). The SCL-90: An outpatient psychiatric rating scale. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 9(1), 13–28.Google Scholar
  24. Dhejne, C., Lichtenstein, P., Boman, M., Johansson, A. L., Långström, N., & Landén, M. (2011). Long-term follow-up of transsexual persons undergoing sex reassignment surgery: Cohort study in Sweden. PLoS One, 6(2), e16885.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Diamond, G. M., Diamond, G. S., Levy, S., Closs, C., Ladipo, T., & Siqueland, L. (2012). Attachment-based family therapy for suicidal lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents: A treatment development study and open trial with preliminary findings. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 49(1), 62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eisenberg, M. E., & Resnick, M. D. (2006). Suicidality among gay, lesbian and bisexual youth: The role of protective factors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 39(5), 662–668.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Endicott, J., Nee, J., Yang, R., & Wohlberg, C. (2006). Pediatric quality of life enjoyment and satisfaction questionnaire (PQ-LES-Q): reliability and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(4), 401–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fraley, R. C., Heffernan, M. E., Vicary, A. M., & Brumbaugh, C. C. (2011). The experiences in close relationships—Relationship Structures Questionnaire: A method for assessing attachment orientations across relationships. Psychological Assessment, 23(3), 615.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Gandhi, A., Luyckx, K., Maitra, S., & Claes, L. (2015). Non-suicidal self-injury and identity distress in Flemish adolescents: Exploring gender differences and mediational pathways. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 215–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Godley, S. H., Meyers, R. J., Smith, J. E., Karvinen, T., Titus, J. C., Godley, M. D., et al. (2001). The adolescent community reinforcement approach for adolescent cannabis users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) series (Vol. 4). Rockville, MD: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Google Scholar
  31. Grafsky, E. L., Letcher, A., Slesnick, N., & Serovich, J. M. (2011). Comparison of treatment response among GLB and non-GLB street-living youth. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(5), 569–574. Scholar
  32. Greenglass, E., Schwarzer, R., & Laghi, F. (2008). The proactive coping inventory for adolescents. Accessed 3 Jan 2018.
  33. Greenglass, E., Schwarzer, R., & Taubert, S. (1999). The proactive coping inventory (PCI): A multidimensional research instrument. Vyhledano, 3, 2011.Google Scholar
  34. Haas, A. P., Rodgers, P. L., & Herman, J. L. (2014). Suicide attempts among transgender and gender non-conforming adults. Work, 50, 59.Google Scholar
  35. Hall, W. J. (2018). Psychosocial risk and protective factors for depression among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer youth: a systematic review. Journal of Homosexuality, 65(3), 263–316.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Heck, N. C., Flentje, A., & Cochran, B. N. (2011). Offsetting risks: high school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. School Psychology Quarterly, 26(2), 161–174. Scholar
  37. Heron, M. P. (2017). Deaths: Leading causes for 2015. National Vital Statistics Reports, 66(5), 1–76.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Higa, D., Hoppe, M. J., Lindhorst, T., Mincer, S., Beadnell, B., Morrison, D. M., & Mountz, S. (2014). Negative and positive factors associated with the well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. Youth & Society, 46(5), 663–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Higgins, J. P., & Green, S. (2011). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions (Vol. 4). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  40. Ioverno, S., Belser, A. B., Baiocco, R., Grossman, A. H., & Russell, S. T. (2016). The protective role of gay-straight alliances for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning students: A prospective analysis. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 3(4), 397–406. Scholar
  41. Israel, T., Gorcheva, R., Burnes, T. R., & Walther, W. A. (2008). Helpful and unhelpful therapy experiences of LGBT clients. Psychotherapy Research, 18(3), 294–305.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Justice, M. (2016). Social support and mental health among homeless youth: A multi-group SEM model of non-LGBT*, LGB, and Trans* Youth in Metro-Atlanta. Atlanta, GA: Georgia State University. (Unpublished master’s thesis).Google Scholar
  43. Kane, E. W. (2006). “No way my boys are going to be like that!” Parents’ responses to children’s gender nonconformity. Gender & Society, 20(2), 149–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Katz-Wise, S. L., Rosario, M., & Tsappis, M. (2016). LGBT youth and family acceptance. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 63(6), 1011.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Kazdin, A. E., French, N. H., Unis, A. S., Esveldt-Dawson, K., & Sherick, R. B. (1983). Hopelessness, depression, and suicidal intent among psychiatrically disturbed inpatient children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(4), 504.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Kent, L., Vostanis, P., & Feehan, C. (1997). Detection of major and minor depression in children and adolescents: Evaluation of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(5), 565–573.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Kertzner, R. M. (2001). The adult life course and homosexual identity in midlife gay men. Annual Review of Sex Research, 12(1), 75–92.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. King, M., Semlyen, J., Tai, S. S., Killaspy, H., Osborn, D., Popelyuk, D., & Nazareth, I. (2008). A systematic review of mental disorder, suicide, and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual people. BMC Psychiatry, 8(1), 70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Kuyper, L., & Fokkema, T. (2011). Minority stress and mental health among Dutch LGBs: Examination of differences between sex and sexual orientation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(2), 222.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Lee, R. M., & Robbins, S. B. (1995). Measuring belongingness: The social connectedness and the social assurance scales. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42(2), 232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Leonard, W., Pitts, M., Mitchell, A., Lyons, A., Smith, A., Patel, S., & Barrett, A. (2012). Private Lives 2: The second national survey of the health and wellbeing of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) Australians. Melbourne, VIC: The Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health & Society, La Trobe University.Google Scholar
  52. Levy, S. A., Russon, J., & Diamond, G. M. (2016). Attachment-based family therapy for suicidal lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents: A case study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 37(2), 190–206. Scholar
  53. Lowry, R., Johns, M., Robin, L., & Kann, L. (2017). The effect of minority stress on substance use disparities among sexual minority US high school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 60(2), S30–S31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lucassen, M. F. G., Merry, S. N., Hatcher, S., & Frampton, C. M. A. (2015). Rainbow SPARX: A novel approach to addressing depression in sexual minority youth. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 22(2), 203–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McConnell, E. A., Birkett, M., & Mustanski, B. (2016). Families matter: Social support and mental health trajectories among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 59(6), 674–680.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. McMahon, E. M., Keeley, H., Cannon, M., Arensman, E., Perry, I. J., Clarke, M., & Corcoran, P. (2014). The iceberg of suicide and self-harm in Irish adolescents: A population-based study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(12), 1929–1935.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Mental Health Foundation. (2016). Fundamental facts about mental health 2016. London: Mental Health Foundation. Accessed 21 Apr 2018.
  58. Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5), 674.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Meyers, R. J., & Smith, J. E. (1995). Clinical guide to alcohol treatment: The community reinforcement approach. New York, NY: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  60. Miller, W. R., & Del Boca, F. K. (1994). Measurement of drinking behavior using the Form 90 family of instruments. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Supplement(12), 112–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & The, P. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6, e1000097.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Mohr, J., & Fassinger, R. (2000). Measuring dimensions of lesbian and gay male experience. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 33(2), 66–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mosher, W. D., Chandra, A., & Jones, J. (2005). Sexual behavior and selected health measures: Men and women 15–44 years of age, United States, 2002. Hyattsville, MD: Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics no. 362, National Centre for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  64. Murad, M. H., Elamin, M. B., Garcia, M. Z., Mullan, R. J., Murad, A., Erwin, P. J., & Montori, V. M. (2010). Hormonal therapy and sex reassignment: A systematic review and meta-analysis of quality of life and psychosocial outcomes. Clinical Endocrinology, 72(2), 214–231.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. National LGBTI Health Alliance. (2016). Snapshot of mental health and suicide prevention statistics for LGBTI people. Newtown, NSW: National LGBTI Health Alliance.Google Scholar
  66. Needham, B. L., & Austin, E. L. (2010). Sexual orientation, parental support, and health during the transition to young adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(10), 1189–1198.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Newfield, E., Hart, S., Dibble, S., & Kohler, L. (2006). Female-to-male transgender quality of life. Quality of Life Research, 15(9), 1447–1457.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Olson, J., Schrager, S. M., Belzer, M., Simons, L. K., & Clark, L. F. (2015). Baseline physiologic and psychosocial characteristics of transgender youth seeking care for gender dysphoria. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57(4), 374–380. Scholar
  69. Pachankis, J. E., & Goldfried, M. R. (2010). Expressive writing for gay-related stress: Psychosocial benefits and mechanisms underlying improvement. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(1), 98–110. Scholar
  70. Pachankis, J. E., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Rendina, H. J., Safren, S. A., & Parsons, J. T. (2015). LGB-affirmative cognitive-behavioral therapy for young adult gay and bisexual men: A randomized controlled trial of a transdiagnostic minority stress approach. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(5), 875.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Padilla, Y. C., Crisp, C., & Rew, D. L. (2010). Parental acceptance and illegal drug use among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents: Results from a national survey. Social Work, 55(3), 265–275.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Peterson, C. M., Matthews, A., Copps-Smith, E., & Conard, L. A. (2017). Suicidality, self-harm, and body dissatisfaction in transgender adolescents and emerging adults with gender dysphoria. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 47(4), 475–482.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Poznanski, E. O., & Mokros, H. B. (1996). Childrens depression rating scale, revised (CDRS-R). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  74. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Reynolds, W. (2002). Manual for the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale—Second Edition (RADS-2). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  76. Reynolds, W. M. (1987). Suicidal ideation questionnaire (SIQ). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  77. Roberts, A. L., Rosario, M., Corliss, H. L., Koenen, K. C., & Austin, S. B. (2012). Elevated risk of posttraumatic stress in sexual minority youths: Mediation by childhood abuse and gender nonconformity. American Journal of Public Health, 102(8), 1587–1593.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Rosario, M., & Schrimshaw, E. W. (2013). The sexual identity development and health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents: An ecological perspective. In C. J. Patterson & A. R. D'Augelli (Eds.), Handbook of psychology and sexual orientation (pp. 87–101). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image (Vol. 11). Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rowley, A. A., Roesch, S. C., Jurica, B. J., & Vaughn, A. A. (2005). Developing and validating a stress appraisal measure for minority adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 28(4), 547–557.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Russell, S. T., & Joyner, K. (2001). Adolescent sexual orientation and suicide risk: Evidence from a national study. American Journal of Public Health, 91(8), 1276–1281.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Ryan, C., Huebner, D., Diaz, R. M., & Sanchez, J. (2009). Family rejection as a predictor of negative health outcomes in white and Latino lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. Pediatrics, 123(1), 346–352.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Safren, S. A., Hollander, G., Hart, T. A., & Heimberg, R. G. (2001). Cognitive-behavioral therapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 8(3), 215–223. Scholar
  84. Saunders, J. B., Aasland, O. G., Babor, T. F., De la Fuente, J. R., & Grant, M. (1993). Development of the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT): WHO collaborative project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption-II. Addiction, 88(6), 791–804.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Savin-Williams, R. C. (2001). A critique of research on sexual-minority youths. Journal of Adolescence, 24(1), 5–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Savin-Williams, R. C., & Diamond, L. M. (2000). Sexual identity trajectories among sexual-minority youths: Gender comparisons. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29(6), 607–627.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Shamseer, L., Moher, D., Clarke, M., Ghersi, D., Liberati, A., Petticrew, M., & Stewart, L. A. (2015). Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015: Elaboration and explanation. BMJ, 349, g7647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Smith, A., Rissel, C. E., Richters, J., Grulich, A. E., & Visser, R. O. (2003). Sex in Australia: Sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual experience among a representative sample of adults. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 27(2), 138–145.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Spataro, J., Mullen, P. E., Burgess, P. M., Wells, D. L., & Moss, S. A. (2004). Impact of child sexual abuse on mental health. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 184(5), 416–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Spence, S. H. (1998). A measure of anxiety symptoms among children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36(5), 545–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Springer, K. W., Sheridan, J., Kuo, D., & Carnes, M. (2007). Long-term physical and mental health consequences of childhood physical abuse: Results from a large population-based sample of men and women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(5), 517–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sterne, J. A., Hernán, M. A., Reeves, B. C., Savović, J., Berkman, N. D., Viswanathan, M., & Boutron, I. (2016). ROBINS-I: A tool for assessing risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions. BMJ, 355, i4919.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Watson, R. J., Grossman, A. H., & Russell, S. T. (2016). Sources of social support and mental health among LGB youth. Youth & Society. Scholar
  95. Yadegarfard, M., Meinhold-Bergmann, M. E., & Ho, R. (2014). Family rejection, social isolation, and loneliness as predictors of negative health outcomes (depression, suicidal ideation, and sexual risk behavior) among Thai male-to-female transgender adolescents. Journal of LGBT Youth, 11(4), 347–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Zaki, L. F., Gross, M., & Pachankis, J. E. (2017). Help-seeking for nonsuicidal self-injury in sexual minority adolescent and young adult females. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 21(2), 171–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52(1), 30–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Technology Sydney Psychology ClinicUltimoAustralia

Personalised recommendations