Kim J, Koo B-K, Knoblich JA. Human organoids: model systems for human biology and medicine. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2020;21(10):571–84.
Rossi G, Manfrin A, Lutolf MP. Progress and potential in organoid research. Nat Rev Genet. 2018;19(11):671–87.
Kratochvil MJ, et al. Engineered materials for organoid systems. Nat Rev Mater. 2019;4(9):606–22.
Simian M, Bissell MJ. Organoids: a historical perspective of thinking in three dimensions. J Cell Biol. 2017;216(1):31–40.
Leach TS, et al. Chapter 83 - Tissue organoid models and applications. In: Lanza R, et al., editors. Principles of Tissue Engineering. 5th ed. Academic Press; 2020. p. 1537–49.
Sato T, Clevers H. SnapShot: Growing Organoids from Stem Cells. Cell. 2015;161(7):1700-1700.e1.
Foley KE. Organoids: a better in vitro model. Nat Methods. 2017;14(6):559–62.
Aghayan HR, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells’ seeded amniotic membrane as a tissue-engineered dressing for wound healing. Drug Deliv Transl Res. 2021;12(3):538–49.
Huch M, et al. The hope and the hype of organoid research. Development. 2017;144(6):938–41.
Lancaster MA, Huch M. Disease modelling in human organoids. Dis Model Mech. 2019;12(7):dmm039347.
Clevers HC. Organoids: avatars for personalized medicine. Keio J Med. 2019;68(4):95.
Arjmand B, Larijani B. Personalized medicine: a new era in endocrinology. Acta Med Iran. 2017;55(3):142–3.
Arjmand B, et al. Zebrafish for personalized regenerative medicine; a more predictive humanized model of endocrine disease. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020;11:396.
Takahashi T. Organoids for drug discovery and personalized medicine. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2019;59(1):447–62.
Goodarzi P, et al. Development and validation of Alzheimer’s disease animal model for the purpose of regenerative medicine. Cell Tissue Bank. 2019;20(2):141–51.
Prior N, Inacio P, Huch M. Liver organoids: from basic research to therapeutic applications. Gut. 2019;68(12):2228–37.
Corrò C, Novellasdemunt L, Li VSW. A brief history of organoids. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2020;319(1):C151–65.
Payab M, et al. Brown adipose tissue transplantation as a novel alternative to obesity treatment: a systematic review. Int J Obes (Lond). 2021;45(1):109–21.
Payab M, et al. Development of a novel anti-obesity compound with inhibiting properties on the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Iran Biomed J. 2020;24(3):155–63.
Tebyanian H, et al. A comparative study of rat lung decellularization by chemical detergents for lung tissue engineering. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2017;5(7):859–65.
Vives J, Batlle-Morera L. The challenge of developing human 3D organoids into medicines. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2020;11(1):72.
Hohwieler M, et al. Pancreatic progenitors and organoids as a prerequisite to model pancreatic diseases and cancer. Stem Cells Int. 2019;2019:9301382.
Miyoshi T, et al. Kidney organoids in translational medicine: disease modeling and regenerative medicine. Dev Dyn. 2020;249(1):34–45.
Nagle PW, Coppes RP. Current and future perspectives of the use of organoids in radiobiology. Cells. 2020;9(12):2649.
Shankar AS, et al. Human kidney organoids produce functional renin. Kidney Int. 2021;99(1):134–47.
Sheikh-Hosseini M, Larijani B, Gholipoor Kakroodi Z, et al. Gene Therapy as an Emerging Therapeutic Approach to Breast Cancer: new developments and challenges. Hum Gene Ther. 2021;32(21–22):1330–45.
Wilson HV. A new method by which sponges may be artificially reared. Science. 1907;25(649):912–5.
Davies JA. Chapter 1 - Organoids and mini-organs: introduction, history, and potential. In: Davies JA, Lawrence ML, editors. Organoids and mini-organs. Academic Press; 2018. p. 3–23.
Johnson MB, March AR, Morsut L. Engineering multicellular systems: using synthetic biology to control tissue self-organization. Curr Opin Biomed Eng. 2017;4:163–73.
Weiss P, Taylor AC. Reconstitution of complete organs from single-cell suspensions of chick embryos in advanced stages of differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1960;46(9):1177–85.
Evans M. Origin of mouse embryonal carcinoma cells and the possibility of their direct isolation into tissue culture. Reproduction. 1981;62(2):625–31.
Hynds RE, Bonfanti P, Janes SM. Regenerating human epithelia with cultured stem cells: feeder cells, organoids and beyond. EMBO Mol Med. 2018;10(2):139–50.
Weeber F, et al. Tumor organoids as a pre-clinical cancer model for drug discovery. Cell Chem Biol. 2017;24(9):1092–100.
Chan JL, et al. Intramyocardial bone marrow stem cells in patients undergoing cardiac surgical revascularization. Ann Thorac Surg. 2020;109(4):1142–9.
Shannon JM, Mason RJ, Jennings SD. Functional differentiation of alveolar type II epithelial cells in vitro: effects of cell shape, cell-matrix interactions and cell-cell interactions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1987;931(2):143–56.
Tsuruta S, Uchida H, Akutsu H. Intestinal Organoids generated from human Pluripotent stem cells. JMA J. 2020;3(1):9–19.
Min S, Kim S, Cho S-W. Gastrointestinal tract modeling using organoids engineered with cellular and microbiota niches. Exp Mol Med. 2020;52(2):227–37.
Onuwaje I, Phillips JB. Chapter 16 - Three-dimensional culture systems in central nervous system research. In: Salgado AJ, editor. Handbook of Innovations in Central Nervous System Regenerative Medicine. Elsevier; 2020. p. 571–601.
Seeger B. Farm animal-derived models of the intestinal epithelium: recent advances and future applications of intestinal organoids. Altern Lab Anim. 2020;48(5–6):215–33.
Fonseca KL, et al. Experimental study of tuberculosis: from animal models to complex cell systems and organoids. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13(8): e1006421.
Artegiani B, Clevers H. Use and application of 3D-organoid technology. Hum Mol Genet. 2018;27(R2):R99–107.
Xinaris C, Brizi V, Remuzzi G. Organoid models and applications in biomedical research. Nephron. 2015;130(3):191–9.
Johansen MD, et al. Animal and translational models of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. Mucosal Immunol. 2020;13(6):877–91.
Barkauskas CE, et al. Lung organoids: current uses and future promise. Development. 2017;144(6):986–97.
Xu H, et al. Organoid technology and applications in cancer research. J Hematol Oncol. 2018;11(1):116.
Johnson J, et al. Characterization of a novel breast cancer cell line derived from a metastatic bone lesion of a breast cancer patient. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018;170(1):179–88.
Calandrini C, Schutgens F, Oka R, et al. An organoid biobank for childhood kidney cancers that captures disease and tissue heterogeneity. Nat Commun. 2020;11(1):1310.
Huch M, Koo BK. Modeling mouse and human development using organoid cultures. Development. 2015;142(18):3113–25.
Morizane R, Bonventre JV. Kidney organoids: a translational journey. Trends Mol Med. 2017;23(3):246–63.
Przepiorski A, et al. The utility of human kidney organoids in modeling kidney disease. Semin Nephrol. 2020;40(2):188–98.
Almeqdadi M, et al. Gut organoids: mini-tissues in culture to study intestinal physiology and disease. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2019;317(3):C405-c419.
Chusilp S, et al. Intestinal organoids in infants and children. Pediatr Surg Int. 2020;36(1):1–10.
Yoo JH, Donowitz M. Intestinal enteroids/organoids: a novel platform for drug discovery in inflammatory bowel diseases. World J Gastroenterol. 2019;25(30):4125–47.
Fair KL, Colquhoun J, Hannan NRF. Intestinal organoids for modelling intestinal development and disease. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2018;373(1750):20170217.
Dieterich W, Neurath MF, Zopf Y. Intestinal ex vivo organoid culture reveals altered programmed crypt stem cells in patients with celiac disease. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):3535.
Vijftigschild LA, et al. β2-Adrenergic receptor agonists activate CFTR in intestinal organoids and subjects with cystic fibrosis. Eur Respir J. 2016;48(3):768–79.
Artero Castro A, et al. Deciphering retinal diseases through the generation of three dimensional stem cell-derived organoids: concise review. Stem Cells. 2019;37(12):1496–504.
Kruczek K, Swaroop A. Pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal organoids for disease modeling and development of therapies. Stem Cells. 2020;38(10):1206–15.
Goureau O, Reichman S, Orieux G. Retinal organoids as a new tool for understanding and treating retinal diseases. Med Sci (Paris). 2020;36(6–7):626–32.
Guo Y, et al. Modeling retinitis pigmentosa: retinal organoids generated from the iPSCs of a patient with the USH2A mutation show early developmental abnormalities. Front Cell Neurosci. 2019;13:361.
Puca L, et al. Patient derived organoids to model rare prostate cancer phenotypes. Nat Commun. 2018;9(1):2404.
Gleave AM, et al. A synopsis of prostate organoid methodologies, applications, and limitations. Prostate. 2020;80(6):518–26.
Beshiri ML, et al. A PDX/organoid biobank of advanced prostate cancers captures genomic and phenotypic heterogeneity for disease modeling and therapeutic screening. Clin Cancer Res. 2018;24(17):4332–45.
Chuye LB, et al. Brain organoids: expanding our understanding of human development and disease. Results Probl Cell Differ. 2018;66:183–206.
Di Lullo E, Kriegstein AR. The use of brain organoids to investigate neural development and disease. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2017;18(10):573–84.
Jacob F, et al. A patient-derived glioblastoma organoid model and biobank recapitulates inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity. Cell. 2020;180(1):188-204.e22.
Lancaster MA, et al. Cerebral organoids model human brain development and microcephaly. Nature. 2013;501(7467):373–9.
Zeng F, et al. Liver buds and liver organoids: new tools for liver development, disease and medical application. Stem Cell Rev Rep. 2019;15(6):774–84.
Hindley CJ, Cordero-Espinoza L, Huch M. Organoids from adult liver and pancreas: Stem cell biology and biomedical utility. Dev Biol. 2016;420(2):251–61.
Semertzidou A, et al. Organoid models in gynaecological oncology research. Cancer Treat Rev. 2020;90: 102103.
Roelofs C, et al. Breast tumour organoids: promising models for the genomic and functional characterisation of breast cancer. Biochem Soc Trans. 2019;47(1):109–17.
Berthiaume F, Maguire TJ, Yarmush ML. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: history, progress, and challenges. Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng. 2011;2:403–30.
Tayanloo-Beik A, et al. Cellular therapy for treatment of spinal cord injury in Zebrafish model. Mol Biol Rep. 2021;48(2):1787–800.
Sheikh Hosseini M, et al. Cellular dust as a novel hope for regenerative cancer medicine. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1288:139–60.
Goodarzi P, et al. Tissue engineered skin substitutes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1107:143–88.
Arjmand B, et al. Regenerative medicine perspectives in polycystic ovary syndrome. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1341:125–41.
Nakamura T, Sato T. Advancing intestinal organoid technology toward regenerative medicine. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;5(1):51–60.
Messina A, et al. Pluripotent-stem-cell-derived hepatic cells: hepatocytes and organoids for liver therapy and regeneration. Cells. 2020;9(2):420.
Aghayan HR, et al. Bacterial contamination of amniotic membrane in a tissue bank from Iran. Cell Tissue Bank. 2013;14(3):401–6.
Aghayan HR, et al. GMP-compliant production of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2021;2286:213–25.
Huch M, Boj SF, Clevers H. Lgr5(+) liver stem cells, hepatic organoids and regenerative medicine. Regen Med. 2013;8(4):385–7.
Blutt SE, et al. Use of organoids to study regenerative responses to intestinal damage. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2019;317(6):G845-g852.
Olgasi C, Cucci A, Follenzi A. iPSC-derived liver organoids: a journey from drug screening, to disease modeling, arriving to regenerative medicine. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(17):6215.
Nam SA, et al. Graft immaturity and safety concerns in transplanted human kidney organoids. Exp Mol Med. 2019;51(11):1–13.
Aghayan HR, et al. Organ donation workshop - a survey on nurses’ knowledge and attitudes toward organ and tissue donation in Iran. Int J Artif Organs. 2009;32(10):739–44.
Arjmand B, et al. Co-transplantation of human fetal mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells in type 1 diabetic mice model. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019;10:761.
Navarro-Tableros V, et al. Generation of human stem cell-derived pancreatic organoids (POs) for regenerative medicine. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1212:179–220.
Geuens T, van Blitterswijk CA, LaPointe VLS. Overcoming kidney organoid challenges for regenerative medicine. NPJ Regen Med. 2020;5:8.
Okamoto R, et al. Organoid-based regenerative medicine for inflammatory bowel disease. Regen Ther. 2020;13:1–6.
Naganuma H, Nishinakamura R. From organoids to transplantable artificial kidneys. Transpl Int. 2019;32(6):563–70.
Yui S, et al. Functional engraftment of colon epithelium expanded in vitro from a single adult Lgr5(+) stem cell. Nat Med. 2012;18(4):618–23.
Payab M, et al. Stem cell and obesity: current state and future perspective. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1089:1–22.
Li M, Izpisua Belmonte JC. Organoids - preclinical models of human disease. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(6):569–79.
Duval K, et al. Modeling physiological events in 2D vs. 3D cell culture. Physiology (Bethesda). 2017;32(4):266–77.
Bartfeld S, Clevers H. Stem cell-derived organoids and their application for medical research and patient treatment. J Mol Med (Berl). 2017;95(7):729–38.
Sahu S, Sharan SK. Translating embryogenesis to generate organoids: novel approaches to personalized medicine. iScience. 2020;23(9):101485.
Drost J, Clevers H. Translational applications of adult stem cell-derived organoids. Development. 2017;144(6):968–75.
Menche C, Farin HF. Strategies for genetic manipulation of adult stem cell-derived organoids. Exp Mol Med. 2021;53(10):1483–94.
Hofer M, Lutolf MP. Engineering organoids. Nat Rev Mater. 2021;6(5):402–20.
Hsia GSP, et al. Clinical application of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived organoids as an alternative to organ transplantation. Stem Cells Int. 2021;2021:6632160.
Zhang M, Liu Y, Chen Y-G. Generation of 3D human gastrointestinal organoids: principle and applications. Cell Regen. 2020;9(1):6.
Clevers H. Modeling development and disease with organoids. Cell. 2016;165(7):1586–97.
Lewis A, et al. Self-organization of organoids from endoderm-derived cells. J Mol Med (Berl). 2021;99(4):449–62.
Azar J, et al. The use of stem cell-derived organoids in disease modeling: an update. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(14):7667.
Workman MJ, et al. Engineered human pluripotent-stem-cell-derived intestinal tissues with a functional enteric nervous system. Nat Med. 2017;23(1):49–59.
Little MH. Growing kidney tissue from stem cells: how far from “party trick” to medical application? Cell Stem Cell. 2016;18(6):695–8.
Shankaran A, et al. Advances in development and application of human organoids. 3 Biotech. 2021;11(6):257.
Lee WJ, et al. Generation of brain organoids from mouse ESCs via teratoma formation. Stem Cell Res. 2020;49: 102100.
Wang S, et al. Human ESC-derived expandable hepatic organoids enable therapeutic liver repopulation and pathophysiological modeling of alcoholic liver injury. Cell Res. 2019;29(12):1009–26.
Sui J, et al. Sphingolipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications. Exp Ther Med. 2019;18(5):3603–14.
Rippon HJ, Bishop AE. Embryonic stem cells. Cell Prolif. 2004;37(1):23–34.
Huang Y, et al. Regenerative medicine for the hepatobiliary system: A review. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2020;28(11):913–30.
Shinozawa T, et al. High-fidelity drug-induced liver injury screen using human pluripotent stem cell–derived organoids. Gastroenterology. 2021;160(3):831-846.e10.
Fujii M, Sato T. Somatic cell-derived organoids as prototypes of human epithelial tissues and diseases. Nat Mater. 2021;20(2):156–69.
Yáñez-Mó M, et al. Biological properties of extracellular vesicles and their physiological functions. J Extracell Vesicles. 2015;4:27066.
Taha EA, et al. Knockout of MMP3 weakens solid tumor organoids and cancer extracellular vesicles. Cancers (Basel). 2020;12(5):1260.
Ke X, et al. Esophageal adenocarcinoma-derived extracellular vesicle MicroRNAs induce a neoplastic phenotype in gastric organoids. Neoplasia. 2017;19(11):941–9.
Brassard-Jollive N, et al. In vitro 3D systems to model tumor angiogenesis and interactions with stromal cells. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020;8: 594903.
Bordanaba-Florit G, et al. 3D Cell cultures as prospective models to study extracellular vesicles in cancer. Cancers (Basel). 2021;13(2):307.
Zeold A, et al. Shared extracellular vesicle miRNA profiles of matched ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma organoids and blood plasma samples show the power of organoid technology. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021;78(6):3005–20.
Thippabhotla S, Zhong C, He M. 3D cell culture stimulates the secretion of in vivo like extracellular vesicles. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):13012.
Szvicsek Z, et al. Extracellular vesicle release from intestinal organoids is modulated by Apc mutation and other colorectal cancer progression factors. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019;76(12):2463–76.
Franchi M, et al. Extracellular matrix-mediated breast cancer cells morphological alterations, invasiveness, and microvesicles/exosomes release. Cells. 2020;9(9):2031.
Sandor GO, et al. Wnt activity and cell proliferation are coupled to extracellular vesicle release in multiple organoid models. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021;9:670825.
Namba Y, et al. Depletion of lipid efflux pump ABCG1 triggers the intracellular accumulation of extracellular vesicles and reduces aggregation and tumorigenesis of metastatic cancer cells. Front Oncol. 2018;8:376.
Murgoci AN, et al. Brain-cortex microglia-derived exosomes: nanoparticles for glioma therapy. ChemPhysChem. 2018;19(10):1205–14.
Jeong K, et al. Exosome-mediated microRNA-497 delivery for anti-cancer therapy in a microfluidic 3D lung cancer model. Lab Chip. 2020;20(3):548–57.
Abdollahi S. Extracellular vesicles from organoids and 3D culture systems. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2021;118(3):1029–49.
Xie M, Xiong W, She Z, et al. Immunoregulatory effects of stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles on immune cells. Front Immunol. 2020;11:13.
Kraińska MM, et al. Extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells as a potential therapeutic agent in acute kidney injury (AKI) in felines: review and perspectives. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021;12(1):504.
Meldolesi J. Extracellular vesicles, news about their role in immune cells: physiology, pathology and diseases. Clin Exp Immunol. 2019;196(3):318–27.
Joyner MJ, Paneth N. Promises, promises, and precision medicine. J Clin Invest. 2019;129(3):946–8.
Goetz LH, Schork NJ. Personalized medicine: motivation, challenges, and progress. Fertil Steril. 2018;109(6):952–63.
König IR, et al. What is precision medicine? Eur Respir J. 2017;50(4):1700391.
Aboulkheyr Es H, et al. Personalized cancer medicine: an organoid approach. Trends Biotechnol. 2018;36(4):358–71.
Homicsko K. Organoid technology and applications in cancer immunotherapy and precision medicine. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2020;65:242–7.
Pauli C, et al. Personalized in vitro and in vivo cancer models to guide precision medicine. Cancer Discov. 2017;7(5):462–77.
Xu R, et al. Tumor organoid models in precision medicine and investigating cancer-stromal interactions. Pharmacol Ther. 2021;218: 107668.
Lee TW, et al. Patient-derived xenograft and organoid models for precision medicine targeting of the tumour microenvironment in head and neck cancer. Cancers (Basel). 2020;12(12):3743.
Kondo J, Inoue M. Application of cancer organoid model for drug screening and personalized therapy. Cells. 2019;8(5):470.
Tayanloo-Beik A, et al. OMICS insights into cancer histology; metabolomics and proteomics approach. Clin Biochem. 2020;84:13–20.
Larijani B, et al. Metabolomics and cell therapy in diabetes mellitus. Int J Mol Cell Med. 2019;8(Suppl1):41–8.
Praharaj PP, et al. Circulating tumor cell-derived organoids: current challenges and promises in medical research and precision medicine. Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer. 2018;1869(2):117–27.
Tran F, et al. Stem cells and organoid technology in precision medicine in inflammation: are we there yet? Front Immunol. 2020;11: 573562.
Gkatzis K, et al. Use of three-dimensional organoids and lung-on-a-chip methods to study lung development, regeneration and disease. Eur Respir J. 2018;52(5):1800876.
Grassi L, et al. Organoids as a new model for improving regenerative medicine and cancer personalized therapy in renal diseases. Cell Death Dis. 2019;10(3):201.