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Calcium-Binding Nanoparticles for Vascular Disease

  • Deborah D. Chin
  • Sampreeti Chowdhuri
  • Eun Ji Chung
Article
  • 48 Downloads

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) including atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide. As CVDs and atherosclerosis develop, plaques begin to form in the blood vessels and become calcified. Calcification within the vasculature and atherosclerotic plaques have been correlated with rupture and consequently, acute myocardial infarction. However, current imaging methods to identify vascular calcification have limitations in determining plaque composition and structure. Nanoparticles can overcome these limitations due to their versatility and ability to incorporate a wide range of targeting and contrast agents. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of calcification in atherosclerosis, their role in instigating plaque instability, and clinical methodologies to detect and analyze vascular calcification. In addition, we highlight the potential of calcium-targeting ligands and nanoparticles to create novel calcium-detecting tools.

Lay Summary

Atherosclerosis is one of the major contributors of ischemic heart disease and stroke, which remain the world’s leading cause of death. Atherosclerosis is characterized by the chronic buildup of plaque and occlusion of the arteries. Over time, blood vessels become calcified, losing the elasticity and compliance that is critical to vascular health. Current diagnostic methods to detect calcification are limited to invasive imaging procedures with potentially fatal complications or methods with inadequate sensitivity in identifying plaque composition. Notably, recent work in calcium-detecting nanoparticles show promise as useful diagnostic tools for cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discuss the role of calcification in cardiovascular diseases, current imaging technologies for the detection of calcification, and the potential of nanoparticles as diagnostic and therapeutic agents.

Keywords

Nanoparticle Cardiovascular disease Vascular calcification Imaging Drug delivery Peptides 

Notes

Funding Information

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from the Women in Science and Engineering Program at University of Southern California (USC) for undergraduate research awarded to SC and Gabilan Assistant Professorship awarded to EJC. In addition, we acknowledge the financial support from the L. K. Whittier Foundation and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), R00HL124279, awarded to EJC.

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Copyright information

© The Regenerative Engineering Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials ScienceUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  5. 5.Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, Department of Surgery, Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  6. 6.Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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