Polycrystalline magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been widely investigated in order to better understand and improve their mechanical properties. However, significant questions remain as to how these materials behave under ultra–high strain-rate loading conditions, especially at elevated temperatures. In view of this, in the present study, elevated temperature combined pressure–and–shear plate impact experiments are employed to investigate the dynamic shearing resistance of polycrystalline commercially pure (99.9%) magnesium at strain-rates in excess of 105 s−1, temperatures up to 500 °C, and shear strains > 100%. The results of the study provide important insights into the shearing resistance of polycrystalline pure Mg under extreme thermomechanical loading conditions and its relationship to the evolution of various inelastic deformation modes – dislocation-mediated slip, deformation twinning, and geometric strain softening – with different mechanisms becoming dominant at different levels of inelastic strains and test temperatures.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Similar content being viewed by others
Kaiser F, Letzig D, Bohlen J, Styczynski A, Hartig C, Kainer KU (2003) Anisotropic properties of magnesium sheet AZ31. Materials science forum: magnesium alloys 2003, editors. Y. Kojima, T. Aizawa, K. Higashi, S. Kamados. Trans Tech Publ. pp. 315–320.
Tucker MT, Horstemeyer MF, Gullett PM, El Kadiri H, Whittington WR (2009) Anisotropic effects on the strain rate dependence of a wrought magnesium alloy. Scripta Mater 60(3):182–185
Chapuis A, Driver JH (2011) Temperature dependency of slip and twinning in plane strain compressed magnesium single crystals. Acta Mater 59(5):1986–1994
Jain A, Agnew SR (2007) Modeling the temperature dependent effect of twinning on the behavior of magnesium alloy AZ31B sheet. Mater Sci Eng, A 462(1):29–36
Dudamell NV, Ulacia I, Galvez F, Yi S, Bohlen J, Letzig D, Hurtado I, Perez-Prado MT (2011) Twinning and grain subdivision during dynamic deformation of a Mg AZ31 sheet alloy at room temperature. Acta Mater 59(18):6949–6962
Klimanek P, Pötzsch A (2002) Microstructure evolution under compressive plastic deformation of magnesium at different temperatures and strain rates. Mater Sci Eng, A 324(1):145–150
Choi HJ, Kim Y, Shin JH, Bae DH (2010) Deformation behavior of magnesium in the grain size spectrum from nano-to micrometer. Mater Sci Eng, A 527(6):1565–1570
Somekawa H, Mukai T (2005) Effect of grain refinement on fracture toughness in extruded pure magnesium. Scripta Mater 53(9):1059–1064
Jeong J, Alfreider M, Konetschnik R, Kiener D, Oh SH (2018) In-situ TEM observation of 101¯ 2 twin-dominated deformation of Mg pillars: twinning mechanism, size effects and rate dependency. Acta Mater 158:407–421
Barnett MR (2007) Twinning and the ductility of magnesium alloys Part II. “Contraction” twins. Mater Sci Eng, A 464:8–16
Barnett MR (2007) Twinning and the ductility of magnesium alloys Part I: “Tension” twins. Mater Sci Eng, A 464:1–7
Beyerlein IJ, McCabe RJ, Tomé CN (2011) Effect of microstructure on the nucleation of deformation twins in polycrystalline high-purity magnesium: a multi-scale modeling study. J Mech Phys Solids 59(5):988–1003
Beyerlein IJ, McCabe R, Tome C (2011) Stochastic processes of 10–12 deformation twinning in hexagonal close-packed polycrystalline zirconium and magnesium. Int J Multiscale Comput Eng 9(4):459–480
Zhang J, Joshi SP (2012) Phenomenological crystal plasticity modeling and detailed micromechanical investigations of pure magnesium. J Mech Phy Solids 60(5):945–972
Knezevic M, Levinson A, Harris R, Mishra RK, Doherty RD, Kalidindi SR (2010) Deformation twinning in AZ31: Influence on strain hardening and texture evolution. Acta Mater 58(19):6230–6242
Kumar A, Hauser F, Dorn J (1968) Viscous drag on dislocations in aluminum at high strain rates. Acta Metall 16(9):1189–1197
Regazzoni G, Kocks UF, Follansbee PS (1987) Dislocation kinetics at high strain rates. Acta Metall 35(12):2865–2875
Zuanetti B, Wang T, Prakash V (2017) A novel approach for plate impact experiments to determine the dynamic behavior of materials under extreme conditions. J Dynamic Behav Mater 3:64–75
Wang T, Zuanetti B, Prakash V (2017) Shock response of commercial purity polycrystalline magnesium under uniaxial strain at elevated temperatures. J Dynamic Behav Mater 3(4):497–509
Clifton RJ, Klopp RW (1985) Pressure Shear Plate Impact Testing. Mechanical Testing, Metals Handbook, Ninth Edition (8 ed.), ASM, Metals Park, pp.230–239
Sunny G, Yuan F, Prakash V, Lewandowski JJ (2008) Effect of high strain rates on peak stress in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass. J Appl Phys 104:093522
Yuan FP, Prakash V, Lewandowski JJ (2009) Spall strength of a zirconium-based bulk metallic glass under shock-induced compression-and-shear loading. Mech Mater 41(7):886–897
Tsai L, Prakash V (2005) Structure of weak shock waves in 2-D layered material systems. Int J Solids Struct 42(2):727–750
Zuanetti B, Luscher DJ, Ramos K, Bolme CA, Prakash V (2021) Dynamic flow stress of pure polycrystalline aluminum: pressure-shear plate impact experiments and extension of dislocation-based modeling to large strains. J Mech Phys Solids 146(104185):1–30
Liou NS, Okada M, Prakash V (2004) Formation of molten metal films during metal-on-metal slip under extreme interfacial conditions. J Mech Phys Solids 52(9):2025–2056
Prakash V, Mehta N (2012) Uniaxial compression and combined compression-and-shear response of amorphous polycarbonate at high loading rates. Polym Eng Sci 52(6):1217–1231
Yuan F, Prakash V, Lewandowski JJ (2010) Shear yield and flow behavior of a Zirconium-based bulk metallic glass. Mech Mater 42(3):248–255
Okada M, Liou NS, Prakash V (2002) Dynamic shearing resistance of molten metal films at high pressures. Exp Mech 42(2):161–171
Zuanetti B, Wang T, Prakash V (2017) A compact fiber-optics based heterodyne combined normal and transverse displacement interferometer. Rev Sci Inst 88:033108
Prakash V, Clifton RJ (1992) Experimental and Analytical Investigations of Dynamic Fracture under Conditions of Plane-Strain. Fracture Mechanics: Twenty Second Symposium (vol. 1) ASTM STP 1131 ed.), American Society of Testing Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp.412–444
Zuanetti B, Wang T, Prakash V (2019) Plate impact investigation of the dynamic response of commercial tungsten carbide under shock-induced compression and combined compression-and-shear loading. Int J Impact Eng 131:200–208
Wang T, Prakash V (2021) Inelastic deformation mechanisms in shock compressed polycrystalline pure magnesium at temperatures approaching melt. J Dynamic Behav Mater 7:279–293
Chang Y (2016) A continnum model for slip-twinning interactions in magnesium and magnesium alloys, Doctor of Philosophy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
Levinson AJ (2012) The role of deformation twinning on strain hardening and recrystallization in magnesium alloy AZ31, PhD Dissertation, Drexel University,
Renganathan P, Winey JM, Gupta YM (2017) Shock compression and release of a-axis magnesium single crystals: Anisotropy and time dependent inelastic response. J. Appl Phys 121:035901
Kannan V, Hazeli K, Ramesh KT (2018) The mechanics of dynamic twinning in single crystal magnesium. J Mech Phys Solids 120:154–178
Johnson JN, Rohde RW (1971) Dynamic deformation twinning in shock-loaded iron. J Appl Phys 42(11):4171–4182
Liu Q, Roy A, Silberschmidt VV (2017) Temperature-dependent crystal-plasticity model for magnesium: a bottom-up approach. Mech Mater 113:44–56
Luscher DJ, Buechler MA, Walters DJ, Bolme CA, Ramo KJ (2018) On computing the evolution of temperature for materials under dynamic loading. Int J Plast 111:188–210
Hidnert P, Sweeney WT (1928) Thermal expansion of magnesium and some of its alloys. Bur Stan J Res 1:771–792
Poppema TJ, Jaeger FM (1935) The exact measurement of the specific heats of solid substances at higher temperatures. XIX. The specific heats of zinc, magnesium and their binary afloy: MgZn2. Proceedings Royal Acad. XXXVIII 510–520.
Errandonea D (2010) The melting curve of ten metals up to 12 GPa and 1600 K. J Appl Phys 108(3):033517
Zhao M, Kannan V, Ramesh KT (2018) The dynamic plasticity and dynamic failure of a magnesium alloy under multiaxial loading. Acta Mater 154:124–136
Ravindran S, Lovinger Z, Gandhi V, Mello M, Ravichandran G (2020) Strength of magnesium at high pressures and strain rates. Extreme Mech Lett 41:1044
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the Stewardship Science Academic Alliance (DE-NA0001989 and DE-NA0002919) in conducting the present research. These experiments were conducted at Case Western Reserve University and since then the PI, Vikas Prakash, has moved to the Institute for Shock Physics at the Washington State University. The authors would also express gratitude to the Swagelok Center for Surface Analysis of Materials (SCSAM) at CWRU for the EBSD data and analysis.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Wang, T., Prakash, V. Pressure-Shear Plate Impact Investigation of Dynamic Shearing Resistance of Polycrystalline Pure Magnesium at Elevated Temperatures: Twinning and Dislocation-Slip Rates. J. dynamic behavior mater. 7, 610–623 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40870-021-00312-9