The Role of Self-Regulation in Academic and Behavioral Paths to a High School Diploma

An Erratum to this article was published on 26 September 2017

This article has been updated



This study’s goal was to examine academic and behavioral paths to obtaining a high school diploma.


Data were drawn from a gender-balanced, ethnically diverse longitudinal sample of 808 youth from 18 Seattle public elementary schools serving high crime neighborhoods. Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously estimate longitudinal academic and behavioral paths to a high school diploma.


Results showed support for an academic path whereby higher academic performance in middle school predicted higher academic performance in high school which, in turn, increased the likelihood of obtaining a high school diploma. Results also supported a unique behavioral path whereby poor self-regulation during middle school predicted increased antisocial behavior in high school which, in turn, reduced the likelihood of obtaining a high school diploma. A third path emerged showing that higher family socioeconomic resources directly increased the likelihood of obtaining a high school diploma after accounting for academic performance, poor self-regulation, antisocial behavior, poor family functioning, and school prosocial development. Mediation analyses showed that high school antisocial behavior was a mechanism connecting middle school self-regulation and obtaining a high school diploma.


Results suggest that poor self-regulation is linked to academic attainment through its connection with antisocial behavior. Interventions seeking to improve rates of high school graduation and reduce antisocial behavior may enhance their impact by focusing on self-regulation in conjunction with supporting academic success and family socioeconomics.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Change history

  • 26 September 2017

    An erratum to this article has been published.


  1. 1.

    Abbott, R. D., O’Donnell, J., Hawkins, J. D., Hill, K. G., Kosterman, R., & Catalano, R. F. (1998). Changing teaching practices to promote achievement and bonding to school. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68(4), 542–552.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1986). Manual for the teacher’s report form and teacher version of the child behavior profile. Burlington: University of Vermont Press.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Alexander, K. L., Entwisle, D. R., & Horsey, C. S. (1997). From first grade forward: early foundations of high school dropout. Sociology of Education, 70(2), 87–107.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Anderson, P. (2002). Assessment and development of executive function (EF) during childhood. Child Neuropsychology, 8(2), 71–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Bandura, A., & McClelland, D. C. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Banich, M. T. (2009). Executive function: the search for an integrated account. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(2), 89–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Barnett, W. S., Jung, K., Yarosz, D. J., Thomas, J., Hornbeck, A., Stechuk, R., et al. (2008). Educational effects of the tools of the mind curriculum: a randomized trial. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(3), 299–313.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Battin-Pearson, S., Newcomb, M. D., Abbott, R. D., Hill, K. G., Catalano, R. F., & Hawkins, J. D. (2000). Predictors of early high school dropout: a test of five theories. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(3), 568–582.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Beaver, K. M., Wright, J. P., & DeLisi, M. (2007). Self-control as an executive function: reformulating Gottfredson and Hirschi’s parental socialization thesis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34(10), 1345–1361.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Best, J. R., & Miller, P. H. (2010). A developmental perspective on executive function. Child Development, 81(6), 1641–1660.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Best, J. R., Miller, P. H., & Naglieri, J. A. (2011). Relations between executive function and academic achievement from ages 5 to 17 in a large, representative national sample. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(4), 327–336.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Biederman, J., Monuteaux, M. C., Doyle, A. E., Seidman, L. J., Wilens, T. E., Ferrero, F., et al. (2004). Impact of executive function deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on academic outcomes in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(5), 757–766.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Blair, C. (2010). Stress and the development of self-regulation in context. Child Development Perspectives, 4(3), 181–188.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Blair, C., & Diamond, A. (2008). Biological processes in prevention and intervention: the promotion of self-regulation as a means of preventing school failure. Development and Psychopathology, 20(3), 899–911.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2001). Tools of the mind: a case study of implementing the Vygotskian approach in American early childhood and primary classrooms. Innodata monographs 7. Geneva: International Bureau of Education.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–136). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Byrd, A. L., Loeber, R., & Pardini, D. A. (2014). Antisocial behavior, psychopathic features and abnormalities in reward and punishment processing in youth. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 17(2), 125–156.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Catalano, R. F., & Hawkins, J. D. (1996). The social development model: a theory of antisocial behavior. In J. D. Hawkins (Ed.), Delinquency and crime: current theories (pp. 149–197). New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Catalano, R. F., Oesterle, S., Fleming, C. B., & Hawkins, J. D. (2004). The importance of bonding to school for healthy development: findings from the Social Development Research Group. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 252–261.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Catalano, R. F., Park, J., Harachi, T. W., Haggerty, K. P., Abbott, R. D., & Hawkins, J. D. (2005). Mediating the effects of poverty, gender, individual characteristics, and external constraints on antisocial behavior: a test of the social development model and implications for developmental life-course theory. In D. P. Farrington (Ed.), Advances in criminological theory: Vol. 14. Integrated developmental and life-course theories of offending (pp. 93–123). New Brunswick: Transaction.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Cauffman, E., Steinberg, L., & Piquero, A. R. (2005). Psychological, neuropsychological and physiological correlates of serious antisocial behavior in adolescence: the role of self-control. Criminology, 43(1), 133–176.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Deng, S., & Roosa, M. W. (2007). Family influences on adolescent delinquent behaviors: applying the social development model to a Chinese sample. American Journal of Community Psychology, 40(3–4), 333–344.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Diamond, A. (2012). Activities and programs that improve children’s executive functions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(5), 335–341.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135–168.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Diamond, A., & Lee, K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science, 333(6045), 959–964.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Duckworth, A. L., & Carlson, S. M. (2013). Self-regulation and school success. In B. W. Sokol, F. M. E. Grouzet, & U. Müller (Eds.), Self-regulation and autonomy: social and developmental dimensions of human conduct (pp. 208–230). New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Duckworth, A. L., & Kern, M. L. (2011). A meta-analysis of the convergent validity of self-control measures. Journal of Research in Personality, 45(3), 259–268.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Egeland, J., & Fallmyr, O. (2010). Confirmatory factor analysis of the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF): support for a distinction between emotional and behavioral regulation. Child Neuropsychology, 16(4), 326–337.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Ensminger, M. E., & Slusarcick, A. L. (1992). Paths to high school graduation or dropout: a longitudinal study of a first-grade cohort. Sociology of Education, 65(2), 95–113.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Felson, R. B., & Staff, J. (2006). Explaining the academic performance-delinquency relationship. Criminology, 44(2), 299–319.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Fishbein, D. (2000). Neuropsychological function, drug abuse, and violence: a conceptual framework. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 27(2), 139–159.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Freeman, J., & Simonsen, B. (2015). Examining the impact of policy and practice interventions on high school dropout and school completion rates: a systematic review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 85(2), 205–248.

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Gilman, A. B., Hill, K. G., & Hawkins, J. D. (2015). When is youths’ debt to society paid off? Examining the long-term consequences of juvenile incarceration for adult functioning. Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, 1(1), 33–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Retzlaff, P. D., & Espy, K. A. (2002). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a clinical sample. Child Neuropsychology, 8(4), 249–257.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Greenberg, M. T., Kusche, C. A., Cook, E. T., & Quamma, J. P. (1995). Promoting emotional competence in school-aged children: the effects of the PATHS curriculum. Development and Psychopathology, 7(1), 117–136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Greenberg, M. T., Riggs, N. R., & Blair, C. (2007). The role of preventive interventions in enhancing neurocognitive functioning and promoting competence in adolescence. In D. Romer & E. F. Walker (Eds.), Adolescent psychopathology and the developing brain: integrating brain and prevention science (pp. 441–461). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Hackman, D. A., & Farah, M. J. (2009). Socioeconomic status and the developing brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(2), 65–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Hackman, D. A., Farah, M. J., & Meaney, M. J. (2010). Socioeconomic status and the brain: mechanistic insights from human and animal research. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11(9), 651–659.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 64–105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Hawkins, J. D., Graham, J. W., Maguin, E., Abbott, R., Hill, K. G., & Catalano, R. F. (1997). Exploring the effects of age of alcohol use initiation and psychosocial risk factors on subsequent alcohol misuse. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58(3), 280–290.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Hay, C., Meldrum, R. C., & Piquero, A. R. (2013). Negative cases in the nexus between self-control, social bonds, and delinquency. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 3–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Henry, K. L., Knight, K. E., & Thornberry, T. P. (2012). School disengagement as a predictor of dropout, delinquency, and problem substance use during adolescence and early adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(2), 156–166.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Hughes, C. (2011). Changes and challenges in 20 years of research into the development of executive functions. Infant and Child Development, 20(3), 251–271.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Isquith, P. K., Gioia, G. A., & Espy, K. A. (2004). Executive function in preschool children: examination through everyday behavior. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26(1), 403–422.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Kosterman, R., Graham, J. W., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Herrenkohl, T. I. (2001). Childhood risk factors for persistence of violence in the transition to adulthood: a social development perspective. Violence and Victims, 16(4), 355–369.

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Kosterman, R., Haggerty, K. P., Spoth, R., & Redmond, C. (2004). Unique influence of mothers and fathers on their children’s antisocial behavior. Journal of Marriage & Family, 66(3), 762–778.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Lansford, J. E., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2016). A public health perspective on school dropout and adult outcomes: a prospective study of risk and protective factors from age 5 to 27 years. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(6), 652–658.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Lawson, G., Hook, C. J., Hackman, D. A., & Farah, M. J. (2014). Socioeconomic status and the development of executive function: behavioral and neuroscience approaches. In J. A. Griffin, P. McCardle, L. S. Freund, J. A. Griffin, P. McCardle, & L. S. Freund (Eds.), Executive function in preschool children: integrating measurement, neurodevelopment, and translational research (pp. 259–278). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Lengua, L. J., Sadowski, C. A., Friedrich, W. N., & Fisher, J. (2001). Rationally and empirically derived dimensions of children’s symptomatology: expert ratings and confirmatory factor analyses of the CBCL. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(4), 683–698.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Longshore, D., Chang, E., & Messina, N. (2005). Self-control and social bonds: a combined control perspective on juvenile offending. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 21(4), 419–437.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Masten, A. S., Roisman, G. I., Long, J. D., Burt, K. B., Obradović, J., Riley, J. R., et al. (2005). Developmental cascades: linking academic achievement and externalizing and internalizing symptoms over 20 years. Developmental Psychology, 41(5), 733–746.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Matsueda, R. L., & Heimer, K. (1987). Race, family structure, and delinquency: a test of differential association and social control theories. American Sociological Review, 52(6), 826–840.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Maynard, B. R., Salas-Wright, C. P., & Vaughn, M. G. (2015). High school dropouts in emerging adulthood: substance use, mental health problems, and crime. Community Mental Health Journal, 51(3), 289–299.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    McAuley, T., Chen, S., Goos, L., Schachar, R., & Crosbie, J. (2010). Is the behavior rating inventory of executive function more strongly associated with measures of impairment or executive function? Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16(3), 495–505.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    McEvoy, A., & Welker, R. (2000). Antisocial behavior, academic failure, and school climate: a critical review. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(3), 130–140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Meldrum, R. C., & Barnes, J. C. (2016). Prenatal exposure to secondhand smoke and the development of self-control. Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology., Advance online publication.

  59. 59.

    Meldrum, R. C., Young, J. T. N., Burt, C. H., & Piquero, A. R. (2013). Maternal versus adolescent reports of self-control: implications for testing the general theory of crime. Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(1), 24–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Moffitt, T. E. (2003). Life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behavior: a 10-year research review and a research agenda. In B. B. Lahey, T. E. Moffitt, & A. Caspi (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency (pp. 49–75). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., et al. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(7), 2693–2698.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Morgan, A. B., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2000). A meta-analytic review of the relation between antisocial behavior and neuropsychological measures of executive function. Clinical Psychology Review, 20(1), 113–156.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Murray, D. W., Rosanbalm, K., Christopoulos, C., & Hamoudi, A. (2015). Self-regulation and toxic stress: foundations for understanding self-regulation from an applied developmental perspective, OPRE Report #2015–21. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). 1998–2012 Mplus user’s guide, version 7. Los Angeles: Muthén and Muthén.

    Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Najaka, S. S., Gottfredson, D. C., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). A meta-analytic inquiry into the relationship between selected risk factors and problem behavior. Prevention Science, 2(4), 257–271.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Nesbitt, K. T., Baker-Ward, L., & Willoughby, M. T. (2013). Executive function mediates socio-economic and racial differences in early academic achievement. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(4), 774–783.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Newcomb, M. D., Abbott, R. D., Catalano, R. F., Hawkins, J. D., Battin-Pearson, S., & Hill, K. (2002). Mediational and deviance theories of late high school failure: process roles of structural strains, academic competence, and general versus specific problem behavior. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(2), 172.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Noble, K. G., Norman, M. F., & Farah, M. J. (2005). Neurocognitive correlates of socioeconomic status in kindergarten children. Developmental Science, 8(1), 74–87.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Ogilvie, J. M., Stewart, A. L., Chan, R. C. K., & Shum, D. H. K. (2011). Neuropsychological measures of executive function and antisocial behavior: a meta-analysis. Criminology, 49(4), 1063–1107.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44(2), 329–335.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Piquero, A. R., Jennings, W. G., Farrington, D. P., Diamond, B., & Gonzalez, J. M. R. (2016). A meta-analysis update on the effectiveness of early self-control improvement programs to improve self-control and reduce delinquency. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 12(2), 249–264.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Pratt, T. C., & Cullen, F. T. (2000). The empirical status of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime: a meta-analysis. Criminology, 38(3), 931–964.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Riccio, C. A., & Gomes, H. (2013). Interventions for executive function deficits in children and adolescents. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 2(2), 133–140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    de Ridder, D. T. D., Lensvelt-Mulders, G., Finkenauer, C., Stok, F. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2012). Taking stock of self-control: a meta-analysis of how trait self-control relates to a wide range of behaviors. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16(1), 76–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Riggs, N. R., Greenberg, M. T., Kusché, C. A., & Pentz, M. A. (2006). The mediational role of neurocognition in the behavioral outcomes of a social-emotional prevention program in elementary school students: effects of the PATHS curriculum. Prevention Science, 7(1), 91–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Rumberger, R. W. (2011). Dropping out: why students drop out of high school and what can be done about it. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Sarsour, K., Sheridan, M., Jutte, D., Nuru-Jeter, A., Hinshaw, S., & Boyce, W. T. (2010). Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: the roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17(1), 120–132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Sirin, S. R. (2005). Socioeconomic status and academic achievement: a meta-analytic review of research. Review of Educational Research, 75(3), 417–453.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Sutherland, E. H. (1973). Development of the theory [Private paper published posthumously]. In K. Schuessler (Ed.), Edwin Sutherland on analyzing crime (pp. 13–29). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Van Ryzin, M. J., Stormshak, E. A., & Dishion, T. J. (2012). Engaging parents in the family check-up in middle school: longitudinal effects on family conflict and problem behavior through the high school transition. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50(6), 627–633.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Vazsonyi, A. T., Mikuška, J., & Kelley, E. L. (2017). It’s time: a meta-analysis on the self-control-deviance link. Journal of Criminal Justice, 48, 48–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Vega-Fernandez, P., Zelko, F. A., Klein-Gitelman, M., Lee, J., Hummel, J., Nelson, S., et al. (2014). Value of questionnaire-based screening as a proxy for neurocognitive testing in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Care & Research, 66(6), 943–948.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Wang, M.-T., & Fredricks, J. A. (2014). The reciprocal links between school engagement, youth problem behaviors, and school dropout during adolescence. Child Development, 85(2), 722–737.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Wardrop, J. L. (1989). Review of the California Achievement Tests, Forms E and F. In J. C. Conoley & J. J. Kramer (Eds.), The tenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 128–133). Lincoln: Buros Institute, University of Nebraska Press.

    Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Wilens, T. E., Martelon, M., Fried, R., Petty, C., Bateman, C., & Biederman, J. (2011). Do executive function deficits predict later substance use disorders among adolescents and young adults? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(2), 141–149.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Wright, B. R. E., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1999). Low self-control, social bonds, and crime: social causation, social selection, or both? Criminology, 37(3), 479–514.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Zhou, Q., Chen, S. H., & Main, A. (2012). Commonalities and differences in the research on children’s effortful control and executive function: a call for an integrated model of self-regulation. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 112–121.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Data collection for this study was supported by grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (5R01DA003721 and 5R01DA033956). Support was provided by a National Poverty Research Center Dissertation Fellowship awarded by the Institute for Research on Poverty at the University of Wisconsin–Madison with funding from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, US Department of Health and Human Services, Cooperative Agreement number AE00103. Support was provided by a Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development research infrastructure grant, No. R24HD042828, and training grant No. T32HD007543 to the Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology at the University of Washington. The opinions and conclusions expressed herein are solely those of the authors and should not be construed as representing the opinions or policy of any agency of the Federal government. The authors would like to thank Paula Nurius and Amelia Gavin for their helpful comments on earlier drafts.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Christopher Cambron.

Additional information

An erratum to this article is available at

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Cambron, C., Kosterman, R., Catalano, R.F. et al. The Role of Self-Regulation in Academic and Behavioral Paths to a High School Diploma. J Dev Life Course Criminology 3, 304–325 (2017).

Download citation


  • Self-regulation
  • Antisocial behavior
  • High school diploma
  • Structural equation modeling