Advertisement

How Does Early Adulthood Arrest Alter Substance use Behavior? Are There Differential Effects by Race/Ethnicity and Gender?

  • Connie Hassett-WalkerEmail author
  • Katrina Walsemann
  • Bethany Bell
  • Calley Fisk
  • Mark Shadden
  • Weidan Zhou
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

Purpose

Much criminal justice research has ignored racial/ethnic and gender differences in substance use subsequent to criminal justice involvement. This paper investigated how early adulthood arrest (i.e., 18 to 21 years of age) influences individuals’ subsequent transitions from non-substance use to substance use and substance use to non-substance use through age 30. We also consider if these relationships differ by race/ethnicity and gender. Processes proscribed by labeling theory subsequent to getting arrested are considered.

Methods

We analyzed 15 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed using Stata software version 14.

Results

We found racial/ethnic differences in the effect of arrest on subsequent substance use, particularly marijuana. Being arrested was associated with shifting non-binge drinkers and non-marijuana users into binge drinking and marijuana use, as well as shifting binge drinkers and marijuana users into non-use. This pattern was most evident among White and Black men. For Black men, the association between arrest and both becoming a binge drinker and becoming a non-binge drinker was experienced most strongly during their early twenties. Women’s patterns in substance use transitions following an arrest were less clear than for the men.

Conclusion

Some results, particularly transitioning into marijuana use, offer qualified support for processes proscribed through labeling theory. Findings that arrest shifts individuals into non-marijuana use suggest that factors not accounted for by labeling theory—arrest serving as a teachable moment for those using substances—may be at play.

Keywords

Life course Labeling Substance use Arrest Race Ethnicity Gender 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The study was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R15DA032875-01. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. The authors acknowledge the assistance of Dr. Gilbert Gee, Professor in the Department of Community Health Sciences at the Fielding School of Public Health at the University of California at Los Angeles, in writing this manuscript. The authors also acknowledge Dr. Jeffrey Toney, Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs at Kean University, for his instrumental support in the completion of this study. Finally, Susan Gannon, the director of Kean University’s Office of Research and Sponsored Programs, offered much logistical support for the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Acoca, L. (1998). Outside/inside: The violation of American girls at home, on the streets, and in the juvenile justice system. Crime & Delinquency, 44(4), 561–589.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams, M. S., Robertson, C. T., Gray-Ray, P., & Ray, M. C. (2003). Labeling and delinquency. Adolescence, 38, 171–186.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ageton, S. S., & Elliott, D. (1974). The effects of legal processing on delinquent orientations. Social Problems, 22, 87–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alexander, M. (2012). The new Jim crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Amey, C. J., & Albrecht, S. L. (1998). Race and ethnic differences in adolescent drug use: The impact of family structure and the quantity and quality of parental interaction. Journal of Drug Issues, 28(2), 283–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anthony, J. C., Warner, L. A., & Kessler, R. C. (1994). Comparative epidemiology of dependence on tobacco, alcohol, controlled substances, and inhalants: Basic findings from the National Comorbidity Survey. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2(3), 244–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Armeli, S., Tennen, H., Affleck, G., & Kranzler, H. R. (2000). Does affect mediate the association between daily events and alcohol use? Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 61(6), 862–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arnett, J. J. (2000). A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arnett, J. J. (2005). The developmental context of substance use in emerging adulthood. Journal of Drug Issues, 35, 235–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arnett, J. J. (2007). Emerging adulthood: What is it and what is it good for? Child Development Perspectives, 1, 68–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bachman, J. G., Johnston, L. D., & O'Malley, P. M. (1981). Smoking, drinking, and drug use among American high school students: Correlates and trends, 1975-1979. American Journal of Public Health, 71(1), 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bachman, J. G., Wallace, J. M., O'Malley, P. M., Johnston, L. D., Kurth, C. L., & Neighbors, H. W. (1991). Racial/ethnic differences in smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use among American high school seniors, 1976-89. American Journal of Public Health, 81(3), 372–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bales, W., & Piquero, A. (2012). Assessing the impact of imprisonment on recidivism. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 8(1), 71–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Barnes, G. M., Welte, J. W., & Hoffman, J. H. (2002). Relationship of alcohol use to delinquency and illicit drug use in adolescents: Gender, age, and racial/ethnic differences. Journal of Drug Issues, 32(1), 153–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Belknap, J., & Holsinger, K. (1998). An overview of delinquent girls: How theory and practice have failed and the need for innovative changes. In R. T. Zaplin (Ed.), Female crime and delinquency: Critical perspectives and effective interventions (pp. 31–64). Gaithersburg: Aspen Publishers.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Belsky, J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Nelson, S. E., Van Ryzin, M. J., & Dishion, T. J. (2015). Alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use trajectories from age 12 to 24 years: Demographic correlates and young adult substance use problems. Development and psychopathology, suppl. What Works for them? Genetic Moderation of Intervention., 27(1), 253–277.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Berk, R. A., Campbell, A., Klap, R., & Western, B. (1992). The deterrent effect of arrest in incidents of domestic violence: A Bayesian analysis of four field experiments. American Sociological Review, 57, 698–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bernburg, J., & Krohn, M. D. (2003). Labeling, life chances, and adult crime: The direct and indirect effects of official intervention in adolescence on crime in early adulthood. Criminology, 41(4), 1287–1318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bernburg, J. G., Krohn, M. D., & Rivera, C. J. (2006). Official labeling, criminal embeddedness and subsequent delinquency: A longitudinal test of labeling theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43(1), 67–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bloom, B., Owen, B., & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. Review of Policy Research, 21(1), 31–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brame, R., Bushway, S., & Paternoster, R. (2003). Examining the prevalence of criminal desistance. Criminology, 41, 423–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brame, R., Bushway, S. D., Paternoster, R., & Thornberry, T. P. (2005). Temporal linkages in violent and nonviolent criminal activity. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 21(2), 149–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brownfield, D., & Thompson, K. (2008). Correlates of delinquent identity: Testing interactionist, labeling, and control theory. International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences, 3(1), 44–53.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Buller, D. B., Borland, R., Woodall, W. G., Hall, J. R., Hines, J. M., Burris-Woodall, P., Cutter, G. R., Miller, C., Balmford, J., Starling, R., Ax, B., & Saba, L. (2008). Randomized trials on consider this, a tailored, internet-delivered smoking prevention program for adolescents. Health Education and Behavior, 35(2), 260–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Carney, M. A., Armeli, S., Tennen, H., Affleck, G., & O’Neil, T. P. (2000). Positive and negative daily events, perceived stress, and alcohol use: A diary study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 788–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chen, P., & Jacobson, K. C. (2012). Developmental trajectories of substance use from early adolescence to young adulthood: Gender and racial/ethnic differences. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50, 154–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chiricos, T., Barrick, K., Bales, W., & Bontrager, S. (2007). The labeling of convicted felons and its consequences for recidivism. Criminology, 45(3), 547–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chung, I., Hill, K. G., Hawkins, J. D., Gilchrist, L. D., & Nagin, D. S. (2002). Childhood predictors of offense trajectories. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 39(1), 60–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chung, T., & Martin, C. S. (2001). Classification and course of alcohol problems among adolescents in addictions treatment programs. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 25(12), 1734–1742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Costello, D. M., Dierker, L. C., Jones, B. L., & Rose, J. S. (2008). Trajectories of smoking from adolescence to early adulthood and their psychological risk factors. Health Psychology, 27(6), 811–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dawson, D. A., Grant, B. F., Chou, S. P., & Pickering, R. P. (1995). Subgroup variation in US drinking patterns: Results of the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Study. Journal of Substance Abuse, 7(3), 331–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dean, C. W., Brame, R., & Piquero, A. R. (1996). Criminal propensities, discrete groups of offenders, and persistence in crime. Criminology, 34(4), 547–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    DeWit, D. J., Adlaf, E. M., Offord, D. R., & Ogborne, A. C. (2000). Age at first alcohol use: A risk factor for the development of alcohol disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 745–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dishion, T. J., Capaldi, D., Spracklen, K. M., & Li, F. (1995). Peer ecology of male adolescent drug use. Development and Psychopathology, 7(4), 803–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Donker, A. G., Smeenk, W. H., Laan, P. H. L., & Verhulst, F. C. (2003). Individual stability of antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood: Testing the stability postulate of Moffitt’s developmental theory. Criminology, 41(3), 593–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    D'Unger, A. V., Land, K. C., McCall, P. L., & Nagan, D. S. (1998). How many latent classes of delinquent/criminal careers? Results from mixed poisson regression analysis. American Journal of Sociology, 103, 1593–1620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Eassey, J. M., Gibson, C. L., & Krohn, M. D. (2015). Using a group-based trajectory approach to assess risk and protective factors of marijuana use. Journal of Drug Issues, 45(1), 4–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Eitle, D., Taylor, J., & Eitle, T. M. (2010). Heavy episodic alcohol use in emerging adulthood: The role of early risk factors among young adult social roles. Journal of Drug Issues, 2(40), 295–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Elder, D. S. (1985). Perspectives on the life course. In G. H. Elder (Ed.), Life course dynamics: Trajectories and transitions, 1968–1980 (pp. 23–49). Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Elder, D. S. (1994). Time, human agency, and social change: Perspectives on the life course. Social Psychology Quarterly, 1(57), 4–15.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Nagin, D. S. (2000). Offending trajectories in a New Zealand birth cohort. Criminology, 38(2), 525–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fine, A., & Cauffman, E. (2015). Race and justice system attitude formation during the transition to adulthood. Journal of Developmental and Life Course Criminology, 1, 325–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Flory, K., Lynam, D., Milich, R., Leukefeld, C., & Clayton, R. (2004). Early adolescent through young adult alcohol and marijuana use trajectories: Early predictors, young adult outcomes, and predictive utility. Development and Psychopathology, 16(1), 193–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Friedman, N. P., Miyake, A., Altamirano, L. J., Corley, R. P., Young, S. E., Rhea, S. A., & Hewitt, J. K. (2016). Stability and change in executive function abilities from late adolescence to early adulthood: A longitudinal twin study. Developmental Psychology, 52(2), 326–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ge, X., Donnellan, M. B., & Wenk, E. (2001). The development of persistent criminal offending in males. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 28(6), 731–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gee, G. E., Walsemann, K. M., & Brondolo, E. (2012). A life course perspective on how racism may be related to health inequities. American Journal of Public Health, 102(5), 967–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Giedd, J. N., Blumenthal, J., Jeffries, N. O., Castellanos, F. X., Liu, H., Zijdenbos, A., Paus, T., Evans, A. C., & Rapoport, J. L. (1999). Brain development during childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal MRI study. Nature Neuroscience, 2(10), 861–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gilman, S. E., Breslau, J., Conron, K. J., Koenen, K. C., Subramanian, S. V., & Zaslavsky, A. M. (2008). Education and race-ethnicity differences in the lifetime risk of alcohol dependence. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62(3), 224–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Goldscheider, F., & Goldscheider, C. (1994). Leaving and returning home in 20th century America. Population Bulletin, 48(4), 1–35.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gottfredson, D.M. (1999). Effects of judges' sentencing decisions on criminal careers. National Institute of Justice: Research in Brief. November. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Grant, B. F., & Dawson, D. A. (1997). Age at onset of alcohol use and its association with DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: Results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Journal of Substance Abuse, 9, 103–l10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Grzywacz, J. G., & Almeida, D. M. (2008). Stress and binge drinking: A daily process examination of stressor pile-up and socioeconomic status in affect regulation. International Journal of Stress Management, 15(4), 364–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Guo, J., Collins, L. M., Hill, K. G., & Hawkins, J. D. (2000). Developmental pathways to alcohol abuse and dependence in young adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 61, 799–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Guthrie, B. J., Young, A. M., Williams, D. R., Boyd, C. J., & Kintner, E. K. (2002). African American girls' smoking habits and day-to-day experiences with racial discrimination. Nursing Research, 51(3), 183–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hagan, J., Shedd, C., & Payne, M. R. (2005). Race, ethnicity, and youth perceptions of criminal injustice. American Sociological Review, 70(3), 381–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Harlow, C.W. (1999). Prior abuse reported by inmates and probationers. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. Downloaded from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/parip.pdf.
  57. 57.
    Harris, A. (1975). Imprisonment and the expected value of criminal choice: A specification and test of aspects of the labeling perspective. American Sociological Review, 40(1), 71–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Holsinger, K. (2000). Feminist perspectives on female offending: Examining real girls’ lives. Women & Criminal Justice, 12(1), 23–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Holstein, J. (2009). Defining deviance: John Kitsuse’s modest agenda. American Sociologist, 40(1/2), 51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Huang, J. H., DeJong, W., Towvim, L. G., & Schneider, S. K. (2009). Sociodemographic and psychobehavioral characteristics of US college students who abstain from alcohol. Journal of the American College Health Association, 57(4), 395–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Huizinga, D., & Esbensen, F. (1992). An arresting view of juvenile justice. School Safety, 1(Spring), 15–17.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Huizinga, D., Esbensen, F., & Weiher, A. (1996). The impact of arrest on subsequent delinquent behavior. In R. Loeber, D. Huizinga, & T. P. Thornberry (Eds.), Annual report: Program of research on the causes and correlates of delinquency (pp. 82–101). Washington, DC: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jackson, D. B., & Hay, C. (2013). The conditional impact of official labeling on subsequent delinquency: Considering the attenuating role of family attachment. Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency, 50(2), 300–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jensen, G. J., & Eve, R. (1976). Sex differences in delinquency: An examination of popular sociological explanations. Criminology, 13, 427–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Johnson, H. (2006). Drug use by incarcerated women offenders. Drug and Alcohol Review, 25, 433–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Johnson, L., Simons, R. L., & Conger, R. D. (2004). Criminal justice system involvement and continuity of youth crime: A longitudinal analysis. Youth & Society, 36(1), 3–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kandel, D., Chen, K., Warner, L. A., Kesslerd, R. C., & Grante, B. (1997). Prevalence and demographic correlates of symptoms of last year dependence on alcohol, nicotine, marijuana and cocaine in the U.S. population. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 44(1), 11–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Khantzian, E. J. (1997). The self-medication hypothesis of substance use disorders: A reconsideration and recent applications. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 4(5), 231–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kratzer, L., & Hodgins, S. (1999). A typology of offenders: A test of Moffitt’s theory among males and females from childhood to age 30. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 9, 57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kuh, D., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Lynch, J., Hallqvist, J., & Power, C. (2003). Life course epidemiology. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 57(10), 778–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kurlychek, M. C., Brame, R., & Bushway, S. D. (2007). Enduring risk? Old criminal records and predictions of future criminal involvement. Crime & Delinquency, 53(1), 64–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    LaFree, G. (1998). Losing legitimacy: Street crime and the decline of social institutions in America. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    LaFree, G. (1995). Race and crime trends in the United States, 1946–1990. In D. Hawkins (Ed.), Ethnicity, race, and crime (pp. 169–193). Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Landsman-Lynne, S. D., Bradshaw, C. P., & Ialongo, N. S. (2010). Testing a developmental cascade model of adolescent substance use trajectories and young adult adjustment. Development and Psychopathology, Suppl. Developmental Cascades: Part 2, 4(22), 933–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lanza, S. T., & Collins, L. M. (2002). Pubertal timing and the stages of substance use in females during early adolescence. Prevention Science, 3, 69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Laub, J. H., Nagin, D. S., & Sampson, R. J. (1998). Trajectories of change in criminal offending: Good marriages and the desistance process. American Sociological Review, 63, 25–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lebel, C., & Beaulieu, C. (2011). Longitudinal development of human brain wiring continues from childhood into adulthood. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(30), 10937–10947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Light, M. T., Massoglia, M., & King, R. D. (2014). Citizenship and punishment: The salience of national membership in U.S. criminal courts. American Sociological Review, 79(5), 825–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lopes, G., Krohn, M. D., Lizotte, A. J., Schmidt, N. M., Vásquez, B. E., & Bernburg, J. G. (2012). Labeling and cumulative disadvantage: The impact of formal police intervention on life chances and crime during emerging adulthood. Crime & Delinquency, 58(3), 456–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Martin, J. K., Tuch, S. A., & Roman, P. M. (2003). Problem drinking patterns among African Americans: The impacts of reports of discrimination, perceptions of prejudice, and "risky" coping strategies. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44(3), 408–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Matsueda, R. L., Kreager, D., & Huizinga, D. (2006). Deterring delinquents: A rational choice model of theft and violence. American Sociological Review, 71, 95–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Maume, M. O., Ousey, G. C., & Beaver, K. (2005). Cutting the grass: A reexamination of the link between marital attachment, delinquent peers and desistance from marijuana use. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 21(1), 27–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mauricio, A. M., Little, M., Chassin, L., Knight, G. P., Piquero, A. R., Losoya, S. H., & Vargas-Chanes, D. (2009). Juvenile offenders’ alcohol and marijuana trajectories: Risk and protective factor effects in the context of time in a supervised facility. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 38, 440–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    McAra, L., & McVie, S. (2007). Youth justice? The impact of system contact on patterns of desistance from offending. European Journal of Criminology, 4(3), 315–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Messerschmidt, J. W. (1993). Masculinities and crime. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100(4), 674–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2001). Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 355–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Dickson, N., Silva, P., & Stanton, W. (1996). Childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial conduct problems in males: Natural history from ages 3 to 18 years. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 399–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Harrington, H., & Milne, B. J. (2002). Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited anti-social pathways: Followup at age 26 years. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 179–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Morris, R. G., & Piquero, A. R. (2013). For whom do sanctions deter and label? Justice Quarterly, 30(5), 837–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Murray, C., & Cox, L. A. (1979). Beyond probation: Juvenile corrections and the chronic juvenile offender. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Nagin, D. S., Farrington, D. F., & Moffitt, T. E. (1995). Life-course trajectories of different types of offenders. Criminology, 33(1), 111–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Nagin, D. S., & Land, K. C. (1993). Age, criminal careers and population heterogeneity: Specification and estimation of a nonparametric, mixed Poisson model. Criminology, 31(3), 327–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Nagin, D., & Tremblay, R. E. (1999). Trajectories of boys’ physical aggression, opposition, and hyperactivity on the path to physically violent and non-violent juvenile delinquency. Child Development, 70(5), 1181–1196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Pager, D., & Quillian, L. (2005). Walking the talk? What employers say versus what they do. American Sociological Review, 70(3), 355–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Paternoster, R., & Piquero, A. R. (1995). Reconceptualizing deterrence: An empirical test of personal and vicarious experiences. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 32, 251–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Patterson, G. R., Forgatch, M. S., Yoerger, K. L., & Stoolmiller, M. (1998). Variables that initiate and maintain an early-onset trajectory for juvenile offending. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 531–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Pearlin, L., Menaghan, E., Liberman, M., & Mullan, J. (1981). The stress process. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 337–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Pearlin, L. I., Schieman, S., Fazio, E. M., & Meersman, S. C. (2005). Stress, health, and the life course: Some conceptual perspectives. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(2), 205–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Pincus, F. (2011). Understanding diversity: An introduction to class, race, gender, & sexual orientation (2nd ed.). Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Piquero, A. (2001). Testing Moffitt’s neuropsychological variation hypothesis for the prediction of life-course persistent offending. Psychology, Crime & law, 7, 193–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Piquero, A. R. (2008). Taking stock of developmental trajectories of criminal activity over the life course. In A. M. Liberman (Ed.), The long view of crime: A synthesis of longitudinal research (pp. 23–78). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Piquero, A. R. (2015). Understanding race/ethnicity differences in offending across the life course: Gaps and opportunities. Journal of Developmental and Life Course Criminology, 1, 21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Piquero, A. R., Brame, R., Mazerolle, P., & Haapanen, R. (2002). Crime in emerging adulthood. Criminology, 40(1), 137–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Piquero, A. R., & White, N. A. (2003). On the relationship between cognitive abilities and lifecourse-persistent offending among a sample of African Americans: A longitudinal test of Moffitt’s hypothesis. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 399–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Raskin White, H., Bates, M. E., & Buyske, S. (2001). Adolescence-limited versus persistent delinquency: Extending Moffitt’s hypothesis into adulthood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(4), 600–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Reitzel, J.D. (2006). Race differences in persistence/desistance: A trajectory analysis of serious youthful offenders followed into adulthood. Proquest: Dissertation presented to the graduate school of the University of Florida. UMI #3392695.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Roeder, K., Lynch, K. G., & Nagin, D. S. (1999). Modeling undercertainty in latent class membership: A case study in criminology. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 94, 766–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Roisman, G. I., Aguilar, B., & Egeland, B. (2004). Antisocial behavior in the transition to adulthood: The independent and interactive roles of developmental history and emerging developmental tasks. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 857–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sabol, W. J., Couture, J., & Harrison, P. M. (2007). Prisoners in 2006. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1997). A life course theory of cumulative disadvantage and the stability of delinquency. In T. P. Thornberry (Ed.), Developmental theories of crime and delinquency (pp. 133–161). Piscataway: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (2003). Life-course desisters? Trajectories of crime among delinquent boys followed to age 70. Criminology, 41(3), 555–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Schaeffer, C. M., Petras, H., Ialongo, N., Poduska, J., & Kellan, S. (2003). Modelling growth in boys’ aggressive behavior across elementary school: Links to later criminal involvement, conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Developmental Psychology, 39(6), 1020–1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Schulenberg, J. E., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Wadsworth, K. N., & Johnston, L. D. (1996). Getting drunk and growing up: Trajectories of frequent binge drinking during the transition to young adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 57(3), 289–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Simons, R. L., Miller, M. G., & Aigner, S. M. (1980). Contemporary theories of deviance and female delinquency: An empirical test. Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency, 17, 42–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Smith, D. A., & Gartin, P. R. (1989). Specifying specific deterrence: The influence of arrest on future criminal activity. American Sociological Review, 54, 94–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Spohn, C., & Holleran, D. (2002). The effect of imprisonment on recidivism rates of felony offenders: A focus on drug offenders. Criminology, 40(2), 329–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Staff, J., Schulenberg, J. E., Maslowsky, J., Bachman, J. G., O’Malley, P. M., Maggs, J. L., & Johnston, J. D. (2010). Substance use changes and social role transitions: Proximal developmental effects on ongoing trajectories from late adolescence through early adulthood. Development & Psychopathology, Suppl. Developmental Cascades Part 2, 22(4), 917–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Tannenbaum, F. (1938). Crime and the community. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Terry-McElrath, Y. M., O’Malley, P. M., & Johnston, L. D. (2009). Reasons for drug use among American youth by consumption level, gender, and race/ethnicity: 1976-2005. Journal of Drug Issues, 39(3), 677–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Tibbetts, S. G., & Piquero, A. R. (1999). The influence of gender, low birth weight, and disadvantaged environment in predicting early onset of offending: A test of Moffitt’s interactional hypothesis. Criminology, 37(4), 843–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Tucker, J. S., Ellickson, P. L., Orlando, M., Martino, S. D., & Klein, D. J. (2005). Substance use trajectories from early adolescence to emerging adulthood: A comparison of smoking, binge drinking, and marijuana use. Journal of Drug Issues, 35(2), 307–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Tyler, T. R., Fagan, J., & Geller, A. (2014). Street stops and police legitimacy: Teachable moments in young urban men’s legal socialization. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 11(4), 751–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Volkow, N. (2004). Drug dependence and addiction, III: Expectation and brain function in drug abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Volkow, N. D., Fowler, J. S., & Wang, G. J. (2004). The addicted human brain viewed in the light of imaging studies: Brain circuits and treatment strategies. Neuropharmacology, 47, 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Volkow, N. D., Fowler, J. S., & Wang, G. J. (2003). The addicted human brain: Insights from imaging studies. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 111(10), 1444–1451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Volkow, N. D., Fowler, J. S., Wang, G. J., & Goldstein, R. Z. (2002). Role of dopamine, the frontal cortex and memory circuits in drug addiction: Insight from imaging studies. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 78(3), 610–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Volkow, N. D., Wang, G. J., Fowler, J. S., Logan, J., Gatley, S. J., Gifford, A., Hitzemann, R., Ding, Y. S., & Pappas, N. (1999). Prediction of reinforcing responses to psychostimulants in humans by brain dopamine D2 receptor levels. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(9), 1440–1443.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Walters, G. D. (1996). The natural history of substance misuse in an incarcerated criminal population. Journal of Drug Issues, 26(4), 943–959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Weichold, K., Wiesner, M. F., & Silbereisen, R. K. (2014). Childhood predictors and mid-adolescent correlates of developmental trajectories of alcohol use among male and female youth. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 43(5), 698–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    White, H. R., & Jackson, K. (2004). Social and psychological influences on emerging adult drinking behavior. Alcohol Research & Health, 28(4), 182–190.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Wiesner, M., & Capaldi, D. M. (2003). Relations of childhood and adolescent factors to offending trajectories of young men. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40(3), 231–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Wiesner, M., & Windle, M. (2004). Assessing covariates of adolescent delinquency trajectories: A latent growth mixture modeling approach. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 33(5), 431–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Wiley, S. A. (2015). Arrested development: Does grade level at which juveniles experience arrest matter? Journal of Developmental and Life Course Criminology, 1, 411–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Windle, M., Mun, E. Y., & Windle, R. C. (2005). Adolescent-to-young adulthood heavy drinking trajectories and their prospective predictors. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66(3), 313–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Young, D. S. (1996). Contributing factors to poor health among incarcerated women: A conceptual model. Affilia, 11(4), 440–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Zeigler, D. W., Wang, C. C., Yoast, R. A., Dickinson, B. D., McCaffree, M. A., Robinowitz, C. B., & Sterling, M. L. (2005). The neurocognitive effects of alcohol on adolescents and college students. Preventive Medicine, 40(1), 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Criminal JusticeKean UniversityUnionUSA
  2. 2.Department of Health Promotion, Education and BehaviorUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.College of Social Work, Hamilton CollegeUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  4. 4.Sloan CollegeUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  5. 5.Elite Research LLCIrvingUSA

Personalised recommendations