Aday, R., & Farney, L. (2014). Malign neglect: assessing older women’s health care experiences in prison. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 11(3), 359–372.
Agnew, R. (2006). Storylines as a neglected cause of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43(2), 119–147.
Allard, P. (2002). Life sentences: denying welfare benefits to women convicted of drug offenses. Washington, DC.
Anderson, T. L., & Bondi, L. (1998). Exiting the drug-addict role: variations by race and gender. Symbolic Interaction, 21(2), 155–174.
Andrews, D. A., Bonta, J., & Wormith, J. S. (2011). The risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model: does adding the good lives model contribute to effective crime prevention? Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38(7), 735–755.
Apel, R. (2013). Sanctions, perceptions, and crime: implications for criminal deterrence. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 29(1), 67–101.
Archer, M. S. (2000). Being human: the problem of agency. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bachman, R., Kerrison, E., O’Connell, D., & Paternoster, R. (2013). Roads diverge: Long-term patterns of relapse, recidivism and desistance for a cohort of drug-involved offenders (Grant Number 2008-IJ-CX-1107). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, United States Department of Justice.
Bachman, R., Kerrison, E. M., Paternoster, R., Smith, L., & O’Connell, D. (2016). The complex relationship between motherhood and desistance. Women and Criminal Justice, 26(3), 212–231.
Bachman, R., Kerrison, E., Paternoster, R., O’Connell, D., & Smith, L. (2016). Desistance for a long-term drug involved sample of adult offenders: the importance of identity transformation. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43(2), 164–186.
Bachman, R., & Schutt, R. (2015). The practice of research in criminology and criminal justice (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers.
Barnes, S. L., & Stringer, E. C. (2013). Is motherhood important? Imprisoned women’s maternal experiences before and during confinement and their postrelease expectations. Feminist Criminology, 9(1), 3–23.
Beechey, V. (2013). Women and production: a critical analysis of some sociological theories of women’s work. In A. Kuhn & A. Wolpe (Eds.), Feminism and materialism: women and modes of production (pp. 155–197). New York: Routledge.
Belknap, J. (2010). “Offending women”: a double entendre. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 100(3), 1061–1097.
Belknap, J. (2015). The invisible woman: gender, crime, and justice (fourth). Stamford: Cengage Learning.
Belli, R. F., Stafford, F. P., & Alwin, D. F. (2009). The application of calendar and time diary methods in the collection of life course data. In R. F. Belli, F. P. Stafford, & D. F. Alwin (Eds.), Calendar and time diary: methods in life course research (pp. 1–4). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishers.
Bersani, B. E., Laub, J. H., & Nieuwbeerta, P. (2009). Marriage and desistance from crime in the Netherlands: do gender and socio-historical context matter? Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 25(1), 3–24.
Bloom, B., Owen, B., & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. Review of Policy Research, 21(1), 31–47.
Boudon, R. (2003). Beyond rational choice theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 1–21.
Breen, A. V. (2014). Changing behavior and changing personal identity: the case of pregnant and parenting young women and antisocial behavior. Identity, 14(1), 60–79.
Brown, M., & Ross, S. (2010). Mentoring, social capital and desistance: a study of women released from prison. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 43(1), 31–50.
Bui, H. N., & Morash, M. (2010). The impact of network relationships, prison experiences, and internal transformation on women’s success after prison release. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 49(1), 1–22.
Bumiller, K. (2015). Bad jobs and good workers: the hiring of ex-prisoners in a segmented economy. Theoretical Criminology, 19(3), 336–354.
Busen, N. H. (2014). An interprofessional education project to address the health care needs of women transitioning from prison to community reentry. Journal of Professional Nursing, 30(4), 357–366.
Bushway, S. D., & Paternoster, R. (2011). Understanding desistance: theory testing with formal empirical models. In J. MacDonald (Ed.), Measuring crime and criminality: advances in criminological theory (Vol. 17, pp. 299–333). New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
Bushway, S. D., & Paternoster, R. (2013). Desistance from crime: a review and ideas for moving forward. In C. L. Gibson & M. D. Krohn (Eds.), Handbook of life-course criminology (pp. 213–231). New York: Springer.
Carlsson, C. (2013). Processes of intermittency in criminal careers: notes from a Swedish study on life courses and crime. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 57(8), 913–938.
Cauffman, E., Monahan, K. C., & Thomas, A. G. (2015). Pathways to persistence: female offending from 14 to 25. Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, 1(3), 236–268.
Chesney-Lind, M., & Pasko, L. (Eds.). (2013). The female offender: girls, women, and crime (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Cobbina, J. E. (2010). Reintegration success and failure: factors impacting reintegration among incarcerated and formerly incarcerated women. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 49(3), 210–232.
Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2015). Basics of qualitative research (fourth). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Craig, J., & Foster, H. (2013). Desistance in the transition to adulthood: the roles of marriage, military, and gender. Deviant Behavior, 34(3), 208–223.
Damaske, S. (2011). A “major career woman”?: how women develop early expectations about work. Gender and Society, 25(4), 409–430.
De Li, S., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2003). The gendered effects of adult social bonds on the criminal activities of probationers. Criminal Justice Review, 28(2), 278–298.
Einat, T., Harel-Aviram, I., & Rabinovitz, S. (2015). Barred from each other: why normative husbands remain married to incarcerated wives—an exploratory study. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 59(6), 654–679.
Estrada, F., & Nilsson, A. (2012). Does it cost more to be a female offender? A life-course study of childhood circumstances, crime, drug abuse, and living conditions. Feminist Criminology, 7(3), 196–219.
Fader, J. J., & Traylor, L. L. (2015). Dealing with difference in desistance theory: the promise of intersectionality for new avenues of inquiry. Sociology Compass, 9(4), 247–260.
Farrall, S., & Maruna, S. (2004). Desistance‐focused criminal justice policy research. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 43(4), 358–367.
Farrington, D. P. (1986). Age and crime. Crime and Justice, 7, 189–250.
Farrington, D. P., Ttofi, M. M., Crago, R. V., & Coid, J. W. (2014). Prevalence, frequency, onset, desistance and criminal career duration in self-reports compared with official records. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 24(4), 241–253.
Foster, H., & Hagan, J. (2015). Punishment regimes and the multilevel effects of parental incarceration: intergenerational, intersectional, and interinstitutional models of social inequality and systemic exclusion. Annual Review of Sociology, 41, 135–158.
Frank-Miller, E. G., Lambert, S. J., & Henly, J. R. (2015). Age, wage, and job placement: older women’s experiences entering the retail sector. Journal of Women & Aging, 27(2), 157–173.
Giordano, P. C., Cernkovich, S. A., & Rudolph, J. L. (2002). Gender, crime, and desistance: toward a theory of cognitive transformation. American Journal of Sociology, 107(4), 990–1064.
Giordano, P. C., Schroeder, R. D., & Cernkovich, S. A. (2007). Emotions and crime over the life course: a neo‐meadian perspective on criminal continuity and change. American Journal of Sociology, 112(6), 1603–1661.
Giordano, P. C., Seffrin, P. M., Manning, W. D., & Longmore, M. A. (2011). Parenthood and crime: the role of wantedness, relationships with partners, and ses. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39(5), 405–416.
Glaze, L. E., & Maruschak, L. M. (2008). Parents in prison and their minor children. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Greenfeld, L. A., & Snell, T. L. (1999). Women offenders. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
Griffin, M. L., & Armstrong, G. S. (2003). The effect of local life circumstances on female probationers’ offending. Justice Quarterly, 20(2), 213–239.
Gueta, K., & Chen, G. (2016). “I wanted to rebel, but there they hit me even harder”: discourse analysis of Israeli women offenders’ accounts of their pathways to substance abuse and crime. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(7), 787–807.
Gunnison, E. (2014). Desistance from criminal offending: exploring gender similarities and differences. Criminology, Criminal Justice, Law and Society, 15(3), 75–95.
Gunnison, E., & McCartan, L. M. (2005). The role of different developmental experiences: a theoretical examination of female persistence. Women and Criminal Justice, 16(3), 43–65.
Guthrie, B. (2011). Toward a gender-responsive restorative correctional health care model. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 40(4), 497–505.
Hannah-Moffat, K. (2005). Criminogenic needs and the transformative risk subject: hybridizations of risk/need in penality. Punishment and Society, 7(1), 29–51.
Harding, D. J., Wyse, J. B., Dobson, C., & Morenoff, J. D. (2014). Making ends meet after prison. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 33(2), 440–470.
Harris, A. (2011). Constructing clean dreams: accounts, future selves, and social and structural support as desistance work. Symbolic Interaction, 34(1), 63–85.
Heidemann, G., Cederbaum, J. A., & Martinez, S. (2015). Beyond recidivism: how formerly incarcerated women define success. Affilia, 1–17.
Hollis, M. (1977). Models of man: philosophical thoughts on social action. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hlavka, H., Wheelock, D., & Jones, R. (2015). Exoffender accounts of successful reentry from prison. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 54(6), 406–428.
Holzer, H. J., Raphael, S., & Stoll, M. A. (2006). Perceived criminality, criminal background checks and the racial hiring practices of employers. Journal of Law and Economics, 49(2), 451–480.
Huebner, B. M., DeJong, C., & Cobbina, J. (2010). Women coming home: long‐term patterns of recidivism. Justice Quarterly, 27(2), 225–254.
Inciardi, J. A., Martin, S. S., & Butzin, C. A. (2004). Five-year outcomes of therapeutic community treatment of drug-involved offenders after release from prison. Crime and Delinquency, 50(1), 88–107.
James, D. J., & Glaze, L. E. (2005). Mental health problems of prison and jail inmates. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
Kabeer, N. (2016). Gender equality, economic growth, and women’s agency: the “endless variety” and “monotonous similarity” of patriarchal constraints. Feminist Economics, 22(1), 295–321.
King, R. D., Massoglia, M., & Macmillan, R. (2007). The context of marriage and crime: gender, the propensity to marry, and offending in early adulthood. Criminology, 45(1), 33–65.
Kreager, D. A., Matsueda, R. L., & Erosheva, E. A. (2010). Motherhood and criminal desistance in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Criminology, 48(1), 221–258.
Laferriere, D., & Morselli, C. (2015). Criminal achievement and self-efficacy. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 52(6), 856–889.
Laub, J. H., Nagin, D. S., & Sampson, R. J. (1998). Trajectories of change in criminal offending: good marriages and the desistance process. American Sociological Review, 63(2), 225–238.
Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (2003). Shared beginnings, divergent lives: delinquent boys to age 70. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
LeBel, T. P., Burnett, R., Maruna, S., & Bushway, S. (2008). The “chicken and egg” of subjective social factors in desistance from crime. European Journal of Criminology, 5(2), 131–159.
Leverentz, A. M. (2006). The love of a good man? Romantic relationships as a source of support or hindrance for female ex-offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43(4), 459–488.
Lutman, B., Lynch, C., & Monk-Turner, E. (2014). De-demonizing the “monstrous” drug addict: a qualitative look at social reintegration through rehabilitation and employment. Critical Criminology, 23(1), 57–72.
Maruna, S. (2001). Making good: how ex-convicts reform and rebuild their lives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Maruna, S., Lebel, T. P., Mitchell, N., & Naples, M. (2004). Pygmalion in the reintegration process: desistance from crime through the looking glass. Psychology, Crime & Law, 10(3), 271–281.
Maruna, S., & Roy, K. (2007). Amputation or reconstruction? Notes on the concept of “knifing off” and desistance from crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 23(1), 104–124.
Mazerolle, P., Brame, R., Paternoster, R., Piquero, A., & Dean, C. (2000). Onset age, persistence, and offending versatility: comparisons across gender. Criminology, 38(4), 1143–1172.
McKay, T., Comfort, M., Lindquist, C., & Bir, A. (2016). If family matters: supporting family relationships during incarceration and reentry. Criminology and Public Policy, 15(2), 529–542.
Michalsen, V. (2011). Mothering as a life course transition: do women go straight for their children? Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 50(6), 349–366.
Michalsen, V. (2013). A cell of one’s own? Incarceration and other turning points in women’s journeys to desistance. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. doi:10.1177/0306624x13498211.
Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Harrington, H., & Milne, B. J. (2002). Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: follow-up at age 26 years. Development and Psychopathology, 14(1), 179–207.
Moran, D. (2014). Leaving behind the “total institution”? Teeth, transcarceral spaces and (re)inscription of the formerly incarcerated body. Gender, Place and Culture, 21(1), 35–51.
Moran, D. (2012). Prisoner reintegration and the stigma of prison time inscribed on the body. Punishment and Society, 14(5), 564–583.
Morash, M., Kashy, D. A., Bohmert, M. N., Cobbina, J. E., & Smith, S. W. (2015). Women at the nexus of correctional and social policies: implications for recidivism risk. British Journal of Criminology. doi:10.1093/bjc/azv124.
Mulla, S., & Hlavka, H. (2011). Gendered violence and the ethics of social science research. Violence Against Women, 17(12), 1509–1520.
Mulvey, E. P., Steinberg, L., Fagan, J., Cauffman, E., Piquero, A. R., Chassin, L., Knight, G. P., Brame, R., Schubert, C. A., Hecker, T., & Losoya, S. H. (2004). Theory and research on desistance from antisocial activity among serious adolescent offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 2(3), 213–236.
Nagin, D. S. (2005). Group-based modeling of development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Namey, E., Guest, G., Thairu, L., & Johnson, L. (2008). Data reduction techniques for large qualitative data sets. In G. Guest & K. M. MacQueen (Eds.), Handbook for team-based qualitative research (pp. 137–161). Lanham: Altamira Press.
National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse. (2010). Behind bars II: substance abuse and America’s prison population. New York: Columbia University.
Nyamathi, A. M., Srivastava, N., Salem, B. E., Wall, S., Kwon, J., Ekstrand, M., Hall, E., Turner, S. F., & Faucette, M. (2016). Female ex-offender perspectives on drug initiation, relapse, and desire to remain drug free. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 12(2), 80–89.
Opsal, T. (2012). “Livin” on the straights’: identity, desistance, and work among women post-incarceration. Sociological Inquiry, 82(3), 378–403.
Paternoster, R., Bachman, R., Bushway, S., Kerrison, E., & O’Connell, D. (2015). Human agency and explanations of criminal desistance: arguments for a rational choice theory. Journal of Developmental and Life Course Criminology, 1(3), 209–235.
Paternoster, R., Bachman, R., Kerrison, E., O’Connell, D., & Smith, L. (2016). Desistance from crime and identity: an empirical test with survival time. Criminal Justice and Behavior. doi:10.1177/0093854816651905.
Paternoster, R., & Bushway, S. (2009). Desistance and the “feared self”: toward an identity theory of criminal desistance. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 99(4), 1103–1156.
Piquero, A. R. (2004). Somewhere between persistence and desistance: the intermittency of criminal careers. In S. Maruna & R. Immarigeon (Eds.), After crime and punishment: pathways to offender reintegration (pp. 101–120). Portland: Willan Publishing.
Piquero, A. R., Schubert, C. A., & Brame, R. (2014). Comparing official and self-report records of offending across gender and race/ethnicity in a longitudinal study of serious youthful offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 51(4), 526–556.
Potter, H. (2015). Intersectionality and criminology: disrupting and revolutionizing studies of crime. New York: Routledge.
Richie, B. (1996). Compelled to crime: the gender entrapment of battered black women. New York: Routledge.
Richie, B. (2001). Challenges incarcerated women face as they return to their communities: findings from life history interviews. Crime and Delinquency, 47(3), 368–389.
Richmond, K. M. (2014). The impact of federal prison industries employment on the recidivism outcomes of female inmates. Justice Quarterly, 31(4), 719–745.
Rodermond, E., Kruttschnitt, C., Slotboom, A., & Bijleveld, C. C. J. H. (2016). Female desistance: a review of the literature. European Journal of Criminology, 13(1), 3–28.
Robbins, C. A., Martin, S. S., & Surratt, H. L. (2009). Substance abuse treatment, anticipated maternal roles, and reentry success of drug-involved women prisoners. Crime and Delinquency, 55(3), 388–411.
Rumgay, J. (2004). Scripts for safer survival: pathways out of female crime. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 43(4), 405–419.
Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1990). Crime and deviance over the life course: the salience of adult social bonds. American Sociological Review, 55(5), 609–627.
Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making: Pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1996). Socioeconomic achievement in the life course of disadvantaged men: military service as a turning point, circa 1940–1965. American Sociological Review, 61(3), 347–367.
Sanders, C. B., & Cuneo, C. J. (2010). Social reliability in qualitative team research. Sociology, 44(2), 325–343.
Schubert, C. A., Mulvey, E. P., Steinberg, L., Cauffman, E., Losoya, S. H., Hecker, T., Chassin, L., & Knight, G. P. (2004). Operational lessons from the pathways to desistance project. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 2(3), 237–255.
Scott, C. K., Grella, C. E., Dennis, M. L., & Funk, R. R. (2014). Predictors of recidivism over 3 years among substance-using women released from jail. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 41(11), 1257–1289.
Sharpe, G. (2015). Precarious identities: “young” motherhood, desistance and stigma. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 15(4), 407–422.
Shover, N., & Thompson, C. Y. (1992). Age, differential expectations, and crime desistance. Criminology, 30(1), 89–104.
Sommers, I., Baskin, D. R., & Fagan, J. (1994). Getting out of the life: crime desistance by female street offenders. Deviant Behavior, 15(2), 125–149.
Taylor, C. J. (2015). Gendered pathways to recidivism: differential effects of family support by gender. Women and Criminal Justice, 25(3), 169–183.
Thornberry, T. P., Krohn, M. D., Augustyn, M. B., Buchanan, M., & Greenman, S. J. (2015). The impact of adolescent risk behavior on partner relationships. Advances in Life Course Research. doi:10.1016/j.alcr.2015.04.002.
Tripodi, S. J., & Pettus-Davis, C. (2013). Histories of childhood victimization and subsequent mental health problems, substance use, and sexual victimization for a sample of incarcerated women in the US. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 36(1), 30–40.
Turanovic, J. J., Rodriguez, N., & Pratt, T. C. (2012). The collateral consequences of incarceration revisited: a qualitative analysis of the effects on caregivers of children of incarcerated parents. Criminology, 50(4), 913–959.
Uggen, C. (2000). Work as a turning point in the life course of criminals: a duration model of age, employment, and recidivism. American Sociological Review, 65(4), 529–546.
Van Voorhis, P., Wright, E. M., Salisbury, E., & Bauman, A. (2010). Women’s risk factors and their contributions to existing risk/needs assessment: the current status of a gender-responsive supplement. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37(3), 261–288.
Varriale, J. A. (2008). Female gang members and desistance: pregnancy as a possible exit strategy? Journal of Gang Research, 15(4), 35–62.
Verbruggen, J., Blokland, A. A. J., & van der Geest, V. R. (2012). Effects of employment and unemployment on serious offending in a high-risk sample of men and women from ages 18 to 32 in the Netherlands. British Journal of Criminology, 52(5), 845–869.
Wahler, E. A. (2015). Retribution or rehabilitation? Conflicting goals of US policies pertaining to drug felonies and their impact on women. Journal of Women, Politics and Policy, 36(1), 95–106.
Wakefield, S., & Wildeman, C. (2013). Children of the prison boom: mass incarceration and the future of American inequality. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wattanaporn, K. A., & Holtfreter, K. (2014). The impact of feminist pathways research on gender-responsive policy and practice. Feminist Criminology, 9(3), 191–207.
White, H. R., Buckman, J., Pardini, D., & Loeber, R. (2015). The association of alcohol and drug use with persistence of violent offending in young adulthood. Journal of Developmental and Life Course Criminology, 1(3), 289–303.
White, H. R., Lee, C., Mun, E.-Y., & Loeber, R. (2012). Developmental patterns of alcohol use in relation to the persistence and desistance of serious violent offending among African American and Caucasian young men. Criminology, 50(2), 391–426.
Wolf Harlow, C. (1999). Special report: profile of jail inmates, 1996. Washington, D.C.
Wozniak, A. (2015). Discrimination and the effects of drug testing on black employment. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 97(3), 548–566.
Wright, K. A., & Bouffard, L. A. (2016). Capturing crime: the qualitative analysis of individual cases for advancing criminological knowledge. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(2), 123–145.
Wright, E. M., Van Voorhis, P., Bauman, A., & Salisbury, E. (2008). Gender-responsive risk/needs assessment: final report. Cincinnati: Criminal Justice Research Center, University of Cincinnati.
Wright, E. M., Van Voorhis, P., Salisbury, E. J., & Bauman, A. (2012). Gender-responsive lessons learned and policy implications for women in prison: a review. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39(12), 1612–1632.
Wyse, J. J. B., Harding, D. J., & Morenoff, J. D. (2014). Romantic relationships and criminal desistance: pathways and processes. Sociological Forum, 29(2), 365–385.