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Table 3 Onboard energy storage systems for off-wire operation “OESS”.

From: Catenary-Free Tramway Systems: Functional and Cost–Benefit Analysis for a Metropolitan Area

City Operational Length, off wire Length, system Supplier Technology Vehicles
Nice, France 2007 0.91 km total segments 8.7 km, 21 stops Alstom Battery, (Ni-MH) (SAFT) 20 CITADIS vehicles
Seville, Spain 2011 0.6 km line segment 2.2 km, 5 stops CAF ACR Evodrive supercapacitors 4 URBOS 3 vehicles
Shenyang, China 2013 Segments totaling 2.5 km 69.9 km, 65 stops, 4 lines CNR Changchun Voith supercapacitors 30 “dolphin” vehicles
Zaragoza, Spain 2013 2 km off-wire segment, charging at stops 12.8 km, 25 stops CAF ACR Freedrive battery/supercapacitors 21 URBOS 3 vehicles
Guangzhou, China 2014 Completely catenary free, charging at stops 7.7 km, 10 stops, Haizu Circle Line CSR ZELC SIEMENS SITRAS ES supercapacitors (Maxwell) 7 vehicles
Nanjing, China 2014 90% catenary free, OCS only at stops and acceleration points 8 km, 13 stops, Hexi line CSR Puzhen Bombardier Primove battery (Li ion) 15 FLEXITY 2 vehicles
Kaohsiung, Taiwan 2015 Completely catenary free, charging at stops 8.2 km, 14 stops CAF ACR Evodrive supercapacitors 9 URBOS vehicles
Dallas, TX 2015 Oak Cliff Streetcar, 1.6 km 2.6 km, 4 stops Brookville ABB battery (Li ion nickel manganese cobalt) 2 LIBERTY vehicles
Konya, Turkey 2015 1.8 km 21 km, 35 stops Skoda CATFREE battery (nano-lithium titanium) 12 FORCITY CLASSIC 28T vehicles
Santos, Brazil 2106 0.4 km 11.4 km, 14 stops Vossloh ABB battery (Li titanate) 22 TRAMLINK V4 vehicles
Seattle, WA 2016 Seattle First-Hill Streetcar, 4 km (downhill track) 4 km, 10 stops Inekon Battery (Li ion)(SAFT) 6 TRIO 12 vehicles
Detroit, MI 2016 New M-1 streetcar line, (length tbd—60% of system proposed) 5.1 km, 20 stops Brookville ABB battery (Li ion nickel manganese cobalt) 6 LIBERTY 12 vehicles
Doha Education City, Qatar 2016 Completely catenary free, charging at stops 11.5 km, 25 stops Siemens SITRAS HES battery (Ni-MH)/supercapacitors 19 AVENIO vehicles
Granada, Spain 2017 4 segments totaling 4.95 km 15.9 km, 26 stops CAF ACR Freedrive battery/supercapacitors 13 URBOS 3 vehicles
Luxembourg 2020 3.6 km off-wire segment between Pont Rouge and Gare Centrale, charging at stops 16 km, 24 stops CAF ACR Freedrive battery/supercapacitors 21 URBOS 3 vehicles
Nice 2018 Completely catenary free, charging at stops 11.3 km Alstom SRS with Ecopack (battery/supercapacitors) 19 Citadis X05 vehicles
Munich, Germany Planned English Garden extension, 1 km with 2 stops 8 km, 4 new stops Stadler Battery (Li ion) 4 VARIOBAHN vehicles with batteries ordered (w/10 more pre-wired for future battery retrofit)