Journal of Social and Economic Development

, Volume 18, Issue 1–2, pp 85–100 | Cite as

Youth in India: challenges of employment and inclusion

  • Rajendra P. Mamgain
  • Shivakar Tiwari
Research Paper


Using the NSSO data on Employment and Unemployment, this paper examines issues of employment and unemployment among Indian youth belonging to various social and religious groups since the advent of the economic reforms in the early 1990s. It shows how an increasing proportion of the youth population is facing situations of high open unemployment during a period of high economic growth. The predominance of the poor quality of employment available to youths is also a major issue of concern, especially for those belonging to the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Muslim communities. Using the Logit Model, the paper shows how education, gender, social belonging and location play significant roles in determining youths participation in labour force, education and quality of employment. The paper argues for strengthening measures to create decent employment on a large scale and for improving the education and skill levels of youths with a greater focus on those belonging to the marginalised groups of Indian society.


Youth Employability Human capital 



The authors express their thanks to the Conference participants for their useful comments. Special thanks are due to Ajir K. Ghose, Arjan de Haan and Arup Mitra for their valuable comments.


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Copyright information

© Institute for Social and Economic Change 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Giri Institute of Development StudiesLucknowIndia

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