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Displacement Mechanomyography Reflects Mechanical Pedaling Force of Muscle Associated with Changes in Cadence and Work Rate During Pedaling

Abstract

Purpose

The combined approach of electromyography (EMG) and mechanomyography (MMG) in cyclic exercise, such as pedaling, is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changes in cadence and work rate during pedaling on EMG and displacement MMG (dMMG) of the vastus medialis (VM) measured simultaneously using our developed MMG/EMG simultaneous measurement device.

Methods

The primary endpoints were the change in EMG and dMMG for each cadence and load conditions (9 patterns) during pedaling. The study participants were 15 healthy men. EMG and dMMG of the right VM were measured at 1 kHz sampling for 30 s with a cadence of 30, 60, and 90 rpm and a work rate of 30, 60, and 90 W. Total powers were calculated based on the time domain waveforms of EMG and dMMG.

Results

The effect of increased work rate responded only to EMG (p < 0.001), but with increasing cadence, EMG (increase) and dMMG (decrease) showed a contrasting relationship. Additionally, dMMG and theoretical pedaling torque had a significant strong positive correlation (p < 0.001).

Conclusion

The results of this study revealed that the dMMG measured during cyclic exercise with different loads and cadence reflect the mechanical properties and states of net muscle strength during pedaling. Accordingly, the dMMG may be considered as a biological index for representing the transmission mechanical force on the cyclist's pedals, that is, the net muscle strength during pedaling.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thanks the students in the laboratory for their valuable cooperation in our experiments.

Funding

This research was supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI Grant Number 19K19967and 22K17686.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

SF and HO conceived and designed research. SF and HO conducted experiments. SF analyzed data. SF wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shinichi Fukuhara.

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Conflict of interests

The authors have no conflict of interest with any companies or organizations.

Ethical Approval

This study was performed in line with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. This study was approved by Kawasaki university of medical welfare ethics committee (approval number 19–013).

Consent to Participate

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Consent to Publish

Consent for publication of the current study results was received from all subjects.

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Fukuhara, S., Oka, H. Displacement Mechanomyography Reflects Mechanical Pedaling Force of Muscle Associated with Changes in Cadence and Work Rate During Pedaling. J. Med. Biol. Eng. (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40846-022-00752-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40846-022-00752-1

Keywords

  • Mechanomyography
  • Electromyography
  • Displacement MMG
  • Pedaling
  • Cadence