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Three-Dimensional Musculoskeletal Model of the Lower Extremity: Integration of Gait Analysis Data with Finite Element Analysis



The human lower extremity is an indispensable system for generating walking and movement. This important system may fail due to joint diseases or bone fractures. This study proposes a human musculoskeletal lower extremity model to calculate its deformation and stress distribution by integrating gait analysis data and finite element analysis.


The gait analysis data, which include bone and joint angles, muscle forces, and ground reaction forces, were obtained from a past study and used as the input data in the lower extremity finite element model.


The full–field deformation and stress could be calculated and obtained from the musculoskeletal finite element model of the lower extremity with different gait postures. The deformation of the musculoskeletal models satisfactorily mirrored the natural movements of the human lower extremity. Additionally, the high bone stress regions of the musculoskeletal models should be monitored due to the high risk of bone fractures.


The human lower extremity model with realistic loading and bounding conditions was successfully developed through the integration of gait analysis and the finite element method. This computational technique could be applied to investigate the effects of various lower extremity postures on the biomechanical mechanism of the human lower extremity.

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This work was supported by the Shin Kong Wu Ho–Su Memorial Hospital Research Program (Grant number: 2019SKHADR018).

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All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and data analysis were performed by K-SS and C-CH. The first draft of the manuscript was written by C-CH. K-SS and C-CH commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Ching-Chi Hsu.

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Shih, KS., Hsu, CC. Three-Dimensional Musculoskeletal Model of the Lower Extremity: Integration of Gait Analysis Data with Finite Element Analysis. J. Med. Biol. Eng. (2022).

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  • Lower extremity
  • Gait analysis
  • Finite element analysis
  • Muscle forces