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Temperature Field in Bone During Robotic Dental Implant Drilling: Theoretical Models and In Vitro Experiments



Based on the clinical requirements of temperature control in dental implant surgery, this study aims to establish a theoretical model of the temperature distribution within the bone surrounding the drill hole during the drilling process, and verify it by data of a robotic drilling experiment.


A preliminary theoretical model of temperature field during the drilling process, including half-hole and full-hole drilling, is proposed based on the heat transfer theory. To determine the main parameters of the half-hole model, half-hole drilling robotic drilling experiments were conducted on in vitro samples. A thermal imager captured the temperature on the bone section, the parameters were substituted into the model to obtain the revised half-hole model, and then the revised full-hole drilling theoretical model was obtained through establishing the relationship between the half-hole and full-hole drilling models. Furthermore, to measure the bone temperature, full-hole drilling experiments were conducted by using some pre-inserted thermocouples on the sites with different radius and depth in the bone surrounding the drilling site, and the accuracy of the theoretical model was verified by the data measured by these thermocouples.


The output of the revised theoretical model based on thermal imaging data was compared with the temperature data measured by the thermocouples. During the full-hole drilling process, the maximum deviation between the theoretical value and experimental data was about 2.5 °C, and the root mean square error was about 0–2 °C. The temperature variations during the entire drilling process were within a reasonable range.


According to the full-hole drilling experiments with thermocouple measurements, the temperature values at different sites around the drill hole corresponded well with the data calculated by the theoretical model. The accuracy of the theoretical model could meet the temperature calculation requirements for robotic clinical drilling, thus it can provide doctors with corresponding suggestions during dental implant surgery, and also offer a basis for real-time temperature control in implant robot drilling.

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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 52175280 and 51775506), the Zhejiang Province Public Welfare Technology Application Research Project (No. LGG19E050022), and the 111 Project (No. D16004).

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Correspondence to Yunfeng Liu.

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Cui, Q., Wang, R., Faller, LM. et al. Temperature Field in Bone During Robotic Dental Implant Drilling: Theoretical Models and In Vitro Experiments. J. Med. Biol. Eng. 42, 253–262 (2022).

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  • Dental implantation
  • Temperature field
  • Temperature measurement
  • Sectional bone drilling
  • Dental implant robot
  • Implant drill hole