Greater than 60% of men (age 40+) are affected by lower urinary tract symptoms, furthermore, NIH has estimated that at least 10 million US men and women suffer from urinary incontinence. However, it is thought that these statistics grossly underestimate the actual prevalence of these types of illnesses. This can be partially attributed to inhibition of a patients’ voiding process if someone is watching them, which often leads to inaccurate results as well as sometimes avoidance of medical help altogether. There are a number of different urodynamic tests used to assess how well the bladder and urethra store and release the urine. These tests include measuring the urine flow rate, volume, pressure, leakage, frequency, urge to urinate, urine stream, pain level while urinating, and urinary tract infections. This paper discusses multiple Urodynamic methods including non-invasive, invasive, homebased, and identifies the gaps available in current technology. In addition, the paper presents the Guidelines for Urodynamics practices developed by the International Incontinence Society. Some urodynamic tests are simple where physicians listen to a patient while urinating to understand the pattern of urination. Other techniques involve inserting a catheter into the urinary tract to measure the internal pressure of the urethra and the volume of the urine. Current methods do not enable physicians to observe the urine stream because patients need to urinate in a private setup. This results in the loss of valuable diagnostic information present in observing the shape of the stream. A new system recently designed overcomes this shortcoming, however, it requires design modifications before it can be used for women. Non-invasive methods utilizing sensors used in clinical setup provide a good insight on the urinary track. However, invasive techniques are needed to identify causes of complicated problems in urinary track.
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This paper was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, under Grant (HiCi/1432-4-8). The team acknowledges the deanship technical and administrative support.
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Alothmany, N., Mosli, H., Shokoueinejad, M. et al. Critical Review of Uroflowmetry Methods. J. Med. Biol. Eng. 38, 685–696 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40846-018-0375-0
- Urine flow
- Voiding volume
- Bladder filling