Vi-RABT: A Platform-Based Robot for Ankle and Balance Assessment and Training
- 215 Downloads
Ankle sprain is a significant public health concern that can compromise ambulation and activities of daily living. An effective rehabilitation protocol includes objective range of motion (ROM), strength, and proprioception assessment and training. The virtually interfaced robotic ankle and balance trainer (vi-RABT) is a platform-based robot to streamline the ankle and balance rehabilitation. vi-RABT is a 2-degree of freedom robot about dorsiflexion/plantarflexion and inversion/eversion of ankle joint. It has a compact electromechanical design instrumented with actuators, angle and torque sensors and equipped with an impedance controller. vi-RABT hosts interactive games, which are designed by therapists, to turn the repetitive therapy into a more engaging experience. The system was used in a preliminary study for ankle joint assessment and training of two healthy human subjects. The assessment results were compared with outcomes using standard equipment in which the ankle joint ROM and strength were found close to the benchmark measures. In training blocks, the impedance controller corrected the individuals’ motion in the goal-oriented interactive game, improving the movement speed and accuracy while delivering satisfactory torque and angle tracking performance. The preliminary results shows that vi-RABT can streamline ankle joint assessment and training in the seated posture. The relatively smaller size of vi-RABT may increase the range and frequency of applications in private clinics and hospitals.
KeywordsRehabilitation robotics Ankle sprain Assessment and training Assistive/Resistive Training
The source of inspiration for pursuing our research in this direction stems from our former advisor, Prof. Constantinos Mavroidis. We deeply regret he is not among us to see the outcome of our research effort, which has led to the publication of this paper. We dedicate this paper to him and no words could express how much we respect and missed him along this way. We would like to thank the undergraduate mechanical engineering students: Ally Bugliari, Paul Douçot, Nate Lavins, Alex Mazzotta, Jan P. Valenzuela, and Sean Suri for contribution to the mechanical design, fabrication and assembly. We also thank Dr. Maureen Holden for contribution at the time of this research.
- 1.Mahaffey, D., Hilts, M., & Fields, K. B. (1999). Ankle and foot injuries in sports. Clin Fam Pract, 1(1), 233–250.Google Scholar
- 2.Hootman, J. M., Dick, R., & Agel, J. (2007). Epidemiology of collegiate injuries for 15 sports: Summary and recommendations for injury prevention initiatives. Journal of Athletic Training, 42(2), 311.Google Scholar
- 8.Mattacola, C. G., & Dwyer, M. K. (2002). Rehabilitation of the ankle after acute sprain or chronic instability. Journal of Athletic Training, 37(4), 413.Google Scholar
- 9.Lee, Y. S. Rehabilitation apparatus using game device. U.S. Patent Application No. 13/244,223.Google Scholar
- 11.Weck, D., Cotter, J. E. E. Balancing device. US Patent No 7,494,446.Google Scholar
- 14.Swaminathan, K., & Krebs, H. I. (2015, August). Analysis of the anklebot training as a method for reducing lower-limb paretic impairment a case study in electromyography. In 2015 IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR), (pp. 555–558). IEEE.Google Scholar
- 18.Homma, K., & Usuba, M. (2007, June). Development of ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion exercise device with passive mechanical joint. In IEEE 10th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, 2007. ICORR 2007, (pp. 292–297). IEEE.Google Scholar
- 19.Lin, C. C. K., Ju, M. S., Chen, S. M., & Pan, B. W. (2008). A specialized robot for ankle rehabilitation and evaluation. Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering, 28(2), 79–86.Google Scholar
- 20.Lu, Z., Wang, C., Duan, L., Li, M., Shi, Q., Wang, L.,… & Wu, Z. (2015, June). Development of a novel ankle rehabilitation robot with three freedoms for ankle rehabilitation training. In 2015 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems (CYBER), (pp. 2091–2096). IEEE.Google Scholar
- 21.Kinetic Breva Ankle CPM, Patterson Medical. http://orthoplusinc.com/index.php/products/continuous-passive-motion/kinetec-breva-ankle-cpm. Accessed 13 Apr 2015.
- 24.Brochure Biodex Catalog 50 Summer (2011). http://www.biodex.com/physmedcatalog/unpriced. Accessed 9 Feb 2012.
- 25.Girone, M., Burdea, G., & Bouzit, M. (1999). The Rutgers ankle orthopedic rehabilitation interface. Proceedings of the ASME Haptics Symposium, 67, 305–312.Google Scholar
- 27.Burdea, G. C. (1996). Force and touch feedback for virtual reality (339 pp). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- 30.Yoon, J., & Ryu, J. (2005, April). A novel reconfigurable ankle/foot rehabilitation robot. In Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2005. ICRA 2005, (pp. 2290–2295). IEEE.Google Scholar
- 31.Ding, Y., Sivak, M., Weinberg, B., Mavroidis, C., & Holden, M. K. (2010, March). NUVABAT: Northeastern university virtual ankle and balance trainer. In Haptics Symposium, 2010 IEEE (pp. 509–514). IEEE.Google Scholar
- 32.Farjadian, A. B., Suri, S., Bugliari, A., Douçot, P., Lavins, N., Mazzotta, A.,… & Mavroidis, C. (2014, May). Vi-RABT: Virtually interfaced robotic ankle and balance trainer. In 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), (pp. 228–233). IEEE.Google Scholar
- 33.Farjadian, A. B., Nabian, M., Holden, M. K., & Mavroidis, C. (2014, April). Development of 2-DOF ankle rehabilitation system. In Bioengineering Conference (NEBEC), 2014 40th Annual Northeast, (pp. 1–2). IEEE.Google Scholar
- 34.Farjadian, A. B., Nabian, M., Hartman, A., Corsino, J., Mavroidis, C., & Holden, M. K. (2014, August). Position versus force control: Using the 2-DOF robotic ankle trainer to assess ankle’s motor control. In Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, (pp. 1186–1189). IEEE.Google Scholar
- 35.Bejestan, A. B. F. (2015). Mechanical design and control system development of novel 2 degree-of-freedom ankle and balance rehabilitation robotic system (Doctoral dissertation, North Eastern University).Google Scholar
- 36.Farjadian, A. B., Nabian, M., Mavroidis, C., & Holden, M. K. (2015, May). Implementation of a task-dependent anisotropic impedance controller into a 2-DoF platform-based ankle rehabilitation robot. In 2015 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), (pp. 5590–5595). IEEE.Google Scholar
- 41.Chaitow, L., Frymann, V. M., & Chambers, G. (2003). Palpation and assessment skills: Assessment and diagnosis through touch. Edinburgh: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- 44.Seok, S., Wang, A., Otten, D., & Kim, S. (2012, October). Actuator design for high force proprioceptive control in fast legged locomotion. In 2012 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), (pp. 1970–1975). IEEE.Google Scholar