Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering

, Volume 37, Issue 6, pp 936–943 | Cite as

Optomagnetic Imaging Spectroscopy Application in Cervical Dysplasia and Cancer Detection: Comparation of Stained and Unstained Papanicolaou Smears

  • Branislava JefticEmail author
  • Milena Papic-Obradovic
  • Jelena Muncan
  • Lidija Matija
  • Djuro Koruga
Original Article


Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. The fact that cervical cancer takes many years to develop indicates that mortality rates can be significantly decreased with early detection. This is why screening tests for early cervical cancer detection are so important, especially in developing countries where screening programs are not available to the same extent as in developed countries. About 84% of all cervical cancer cases in 2012 occurred in less developed countries mainly due to the lack of effective screening programs. Even if the necessary infrastructure in one country exists, the cost of screening test is usually too high. Finally, the accuracy of screening test needs to be satisfying in order to detect all the abnormal cases and treat them effectively. Papanicolaou test is still the most effective screening test for cervical cancer detection so far. However, the accuracy of Papanicolaou test is closely related to the expertise of the cytopathologist and therefore the accuracy varies producing relatively low sensitivity of Papanicolaou test (50–85%). HPV DNA test is approved as primary screening test, but so far it gives better results when it is used in conjunction with cytology. We present a method and device for detection of cervical cancer based on optomagnetic imaging spectroscopy (OMIS) and compare the results for cancer detection using stained and fresh unstained cervical cell samples. Compared to stained samples, unstained fresh sample classification by OMIS into healthy/cancerous group with Naïve Bayes classifier gave higher accuracy (96% compared to 85,18%).


Cervical cancer Screening Imaging spectroscopy Automated detection Device 



This research has been funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, through Project III 41006.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

Experiments were approved by the institutional Ethics Committee and carried out after patient approval.


  1. 1.
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Sancho-Garnier, H., Khazraji, Y. C., Cherif, M. H., Mahnane, A., Hsairi, M., El Shalakamy, A., et al. (2013). Overview of cervical cancer screening practices in the extended Middle East and North Africa countries. Vaccine, 31(Suppl 6), G51–G57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Monsonego, J., Autillo-Touati, A., Bergeron, C., Dachez, R., Liaras, J., Saurel, J., et al. (2001). Liquid-based cytology for primary cervical cancer screening: a multi-centre study. British Journal of Cancer, 84(3), 360–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ronco, G., Cuzick, J., Pierotti, P., Cariaggi, M. P., Dalla Palma, P., Naldoni, C., et al. (2007). Accuracy of liquid based versus conventional cytology: overall results of new technologies for cervical cancer screening: randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 335(7609), 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wilbur, D. C., Parker, E. M., & Foti, J. A. (2002). Location-guided screening of liquid-based cervical cytology specimens: a potential improvement in accuracy and productivity is demonstrated in a preclinical feasibility trial. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 118(3), 399–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cuzick, J., Bergeron, C., Von Knebel, Doeberitz M., Gravitt, P., Jeronimo, J., Lorincz, A. T., et al. (2012). New technologies and procedures for cervical cancer screening. Vaccine, 30(Suppl 5), F107–F116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chevarie-Davis, M., Ramanakumar, A. V., Ferenczy, A., Villa, L. L., & Franco, E. L. (2013). Assessment of the performance of algorithms for cervical cancer screening: Evidence from the Ludwig-McGill Cohort Study. Gynecologic Oncology, 128(3), 415–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Van Kriekinge, G., Castellsagué, X., Cibula, D., & Demarteau, N. (2014). Estimation of the potential overall impact of human papillomavirus vaccination on cervical cancer cases and deaths. Vaccine, 32(6), 733–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Matija, L., Jeftić, B., Nikolić, G., Dragičević, A., Mileusnić, I., Munćan, J., et al. (2014). Nanophysical approach to diagnosis of epithelial tissues using Opto-magnetic imaging spectroscopy. In A. Seifalian, A. De Mel, & D. M. Kalaskar (Eds.), Nanomedicine (pp. 156–185). Manchester: One Central Press.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Koruga Dj, Tomic A, Method and algorithm for analysis of light-matter interaction based on spectral convolution. US Pat. App. No.61/061,852, 2008, PCT/US2009/030347, Publication No: WO/2009/089292, Publication Date: 2009-07-16.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Koruga, Dj, Miljkovic, S., Ribar, S., Matija, L., & Kojic, D. (2010). Water hydrogen bonds studied by opto-magnetic fingerprint technique. Acta Physica Polonica A, 117(5), 777–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Papić-Obradović, M., Kojić, D., & Matija, L. (2010). Opto-magnetic method for Epstein—Barr virus and cytomegalovirus detection in blood plasma samples. Acta Physica Polonica A, 117(5), 782–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Koruga, Dj, Bandić, J., Janjić, G., Lalović, C., Munćan, J., & Dobrosavljević Vukojević, D. (2012). Epidermal layers characterisation by opto-magnetic spectroscopy based on digital image of skin. Acta Physica Polonica A, 121(3), 1111–1115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Taiwanese Society of Biomedical Engineering 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Clinic of Gynaecology and Obstetrics – Narodni FrontBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations