Skip to main content
Log in

Single-crystal diamond grown through high-power-density epitaxy used for a high-performance radiation detector

高功率密度外延的单晶金刚石制备高性能辐射探测器

  • Articles
  • Published:
Science China Materials Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Radiation detectors are important device-level characterization tools of the carrier dynamics of diamond as an ultrawide-bandgap semiconductor. Herein, a high-quality single-crystal diamond was grown on a high-temperature and high-pressure diamond substrate through microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. We achieved the enhancement of microwave power density by compressing a plasma ball and optimizing the carbon-hydrogen ratio (C/H) within the plasma and thus considerably diminished the impurity and dislocation densities of the diamond epilayer. The full width at half maximum of the X-ray (004) reflection rocking curve was 15 arcsec, and no impurity emission bands were detectable in the photoluminescence spectrum at room temperature (25°C). The radiation detector made from this 200-µm-thick diamond epifilm demonstrated an α-particle response with a charge collection efficiency of 97.03% and energy resolutions of 2.1% for electrons and 97.86% and 1.5% for holes. Furthermore, the product of mobility and lifetime of electrons and holes reached 8 × 10−5 and 4.1 × 10−4 cm2 V−1, respectively. The epitaxial method reduces costs while fulfilling the stringent requirements of radiation detection for commercial applications.

摘要

辐射探测器是用来研究超宽禁带半导体金刚石中载流子动力学的重要表征工具. 本文采用微波等离子体化学气相沉积(MPCVD)方法在高温高压(HTHP)金刚石衬底上制备了高质量的单晶金刚石. 我们通过压缩等离子体球来提高微波功率密度, 优化了等离子体中的碳氢(C/H)比, 并显著降低了金刚石外延层中的杂质和位错含量. (004)面X射线衍射摇摆曲线的半高宽(FWHM)仅为15弧秒, 在室温下的光致发光光谱中没有检测到杂质发光带. 使用制备的200 µm厚的外延金刚石膜制成的辐射探测器可对α-粒子响应, 其电子的电荷收集效率为97.03%, 能 量分辨率为2.1%, 空穴的电荷收集效率和能量分辨率为97.86%和1.5%. 此外, 电子和空穴的迁移率和寿命的乘积分别达到8 × 1 0 − 5 和 4.1 × 10−4 cm2 V−1. 此方法有望满足商用金刚石辐射探测器对性能和成本控制的严苛要求.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Dang C, Chou JP, Dai B, et al. Achieving large uniform tensile elasticity in microfabricated diamond. Science, 2021, 371: 76–78

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Girolami M, Serpente V, Mastellone M, et al. Self-powered solar-blind ultrafast UV-C diamond detectors with asymmetric Schottky contacts. Carbon, 2022, 189: 27–36

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Hall DL, Voss LF, Grivickas P, et al. Photoconductive switch with high sub-bandgap responsivity in nitrogen-doped diamond. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2020, 1

  4. Akimoto I, Handa Y, Fukai K, et al. High carrier mobility in ultrapure diamond measured by time-resolved cyclotron resonance. Appl Phys Lett, 2014, 105: 032102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Su K, He Q, Zhang J, et al. Device performance of chemical vapor deposition monocrystal diamond radiation detectors correlated with the bulk diamond properties. J Phys D-Appl Phys, 2021, 54: 145105

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Lohstroh A, Sellin PJ, Wang SG, et al. Effect of dislocations on charge carrier mobility-lifetime product in synthetic single crystal diamond. Appl Phys Lett, 2007, 90: 102111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Chaudhuri SK, Kleppinger JW, Karadavut O, et al. Behavioral contrast of electron and hole transport in high-resolution diamond detectors: A biparametric correlation study. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2021, 42: 200–203

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Tsubouchi N, Mokuno Y, Yamaguchi H, et al. Characterization of crystallinity of a large self-standing homoepitaxial diamond film. Diamond Relat Mater, 2009, 18: 216–219

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Teraji T. Chemical vapor deposition of homoepitaxial diamond films. Physica Status Solidi (a), 2006, 203: 3324–3357

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Shimaoka T, Kaneko JH, Tsubota M, et al. High-performance diamond radiation detectors produced by lift-off method. EPL, 2016, 113: 62001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Okushi H, Watanabe H, Ri S, et al. Device-grade homoepitaxial diamond film growth. J Cryst Growth, 2002, 237–239: 1269–1276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Takeuchi D, Watanabe H, Yamanaka S, et al. Homoepitaxial diamond films grown by step-flow mode in various misorientation angles of diamond substrates. Diamond Relat Mater, 2000, 9: 231–235

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Oshiki Y, Kaneko JH, Fujita F, et al. Measurement of charge carrier dynamics in diamond thin films using a fast TOF system with a UV pulsed laser. Diamond Relat Mater, 2008, 17: 833–837

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Kaneko JH, Fujita F, Konno Y, et al. Growth and evaluation of self-standing CVD diamond single crystals on off-axis (001) surface of HP/HT type IIa substrates. Diamond Relat Mater, 2012, 26: 45–49

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Bogdan G, Neslâdek M, D’Haen J, et al. Freestanding (100) homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. Diamond Relat Mater, 2006, 15: 508–512

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Liu J, Lin L, Zhao Y, et al. Homo-epitaxial growth of single crystal diamond in the purified environment by active O atoms. Vacuum, 2018, 155: 391–397

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Mu L, Su K, Hu T, et al. Corrigendum to “High charge collection efficiency detector based on plasma purified high-quality diamond” [Diam. Relat. Mater. 130 (2022) 109527]. Diamond Relat Mater, 2023, 131: 109618

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Achard J, Silva F, Tallaire A, et al. High quality MPACVD diamond single crystal growth: high microwave power density regime. J Phys D-Appl Phys, 2007, 40: 6175–6188

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Su K, Ren Z, Zhang J, et al. High performance hydrogen/oxygen terminated CVD single crystal diamond radiation detector. Appl Phys Lett, 2020, 116: 092104

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Bergman L, Nemanich RJ. Raman and photoluminescence analysis of stress state and impurity distribution in diamond thin films. J Appl Phys, 1995, 78: 6709–6719

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Tallaire A, Achard J, Silva F, et al. Growth of large size diamond single crystals by plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition: Recent achievements and remaining challenges. Comptes Rendus Physique, 2013, 14: 169–184

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Tsubouchi N, Mokuno Y, Kakimoto A, et al. Characterization of a sandwich-type large CVD single crystal diamond particle detector fabricated using a lift-off method. Diamond Relat Mater, 2012, 24: 74–77

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Shikata S. Diamond dislocations analysis by X-ray topography. Funct Diamond, 2022, 2: 175–191

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Biersack JP, Ziegler JF. The stopping and range of ions in solids. In: Ryssel H, Glawischnig H (eds). Ion Implantation Techniques. Cham: Springer, 1982

    Google Scholar 

  25. Kasap S, Ramaswami KO, Kabir MZ, et al. Corrections to the Hecht collection efficiency in photoconductive detectors under large signals: non-uniform electric field due to drifting and trapped unipolar carriers. J Phys D-Appl Phys, 2019, 52: 135104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Su K, Wang H, He Q, et al. A large gain and high resolution diamond radiation detector with Au/hydrogen termination ohmic contact. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2022, 43: 454–457

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2022YFB3608600), National Natural Science Foundation of China (62134006, 62204193, 62374122 and 62127812), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2021TQ0256), Key research and development program of Anhui Province (2023a05020006), and Key R&D Plan of Shandong Province (2022CXGC020306).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Author contributions All the authors contributed to the manuscript. Ding S, Su K, Ren Z, Chen J and Yang Z did all the experiments and prepared for this paper. Zhang JF, Zhang JC, Hao Y, Su K and Ren Z provided their technical guidance and carried out fruitful discussions on this paper.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Jinfeng Zhang  (张金风), Kai Su  (苏凯) or Zeyang Ren  (任泽阳).

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Jinfeng Zhang is a professor at the Integrated Circuit Department of Xidian University. She received her BS degree and PhD degree in electronic science and technology from Xidian University in 2000 and 2006, respectively. Her recent research focuses on ultrawide-bandgap diamond (C) semiconductor materials and devices.

Kai Su received his BS degree from Harbin Institute of Technology in 2010, his MS degree from Sichuan University in 2013, and his PhD degree from Xidian University in 2020. He has been an associate professor at the Integrated Circuit Department of Xidian University since 2023. Currently, he is mainly engaged in the research on ultrawide-bandgap semiconductor diamond materials and devices.

Zeyang Ren is an associate professor at the Integrated Circuit Department of Xidian University. He obtained his BS degree and PhD degree from Xidian University in 2014 and 2018, respectively, and was promoted to associate professor in 2021. His main research directions include diamond epitaxy and electronic devices.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ding, S., Zhang, J., Su, K. et al. Single-crystal diamond grown through high-power-density epitaxy used for a high-performance radiation detector. Sci. China Mater. 67, 2329–2334 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-024-2955-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-024-2955-x

Keywords

Navigation