Skip to main content

Ultralight flexible perovskite solar cells

超轻薄柔性钙钛矿电池

Abstract

Ultrathin (thickness less than 10 μm) and ultralight flexible perovskite solar cells (FPSCs) have attracted extensive research enthusiasm as power sources for specific potential lightweight applications, such as drones, blimps, weather balloons and avionics. Currently, there is still a certain gap between the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ultrathin FPSCs and common FPSCs. This study demonstrates ultrathin FPSCs on 3-μm-thick parylene-C substrates via a flip-over transferring process. The Zr, Ti and Ga-doped indium oxide (ITGZO) film is employed as the bottom transparent electrode of ultrathin inverted FPSCs with a remarkable PCE of 20.2%, which is comparable to that based on common FPSCs. Devices on glasses and parylene-F (i.e., parylene-VT4) substrates were also constructed to verify the advantages of parylene-C. Furthermore, an excellent power-per-weight of 30.3 W g−1 is achieved attributed to remarkable PCE and ultrathin-ultralight substrates, demonstrating the great promise of fabricating efficient, ultrathin and ultralight solar cells with parylene-C films.

摘要

超轻超薄(薄于10 μm)柔性钙钛矿电池作为优秀的供能器件已在 全世界范围内吸引了研究者的目光. 特别地, 其具有超轻质的优势, 适 用于对器件重量较为敏感的特殊应用环境, 例如无人机、高空气球、 飞艇及航天器. 但目前, 超轻超薄器件与常规厚度柔性器件相比, 转化 效率仍有差距. 本文在3 μm厚、经平坦化转印处理的parylene-C衬底之 上, 采用锆、钛、镓掺杂的氧化铟作为透明电极, 实现了具有20.2%高 效率的超轻超薄柔性钙钛矿器件, 与常规厚度柔性器件处于同一水平. 我们同时制备了基于刚性玻璃和parylene-F(即parylene-VT4)衬底的参 比器件, 测试结果证明了parylene-C衬底的优势. 凭借着高效率和超轻 薄特性, parylene-C基钙钛矿器件实现了30.3 W g−1的超高能质比, 展示 出parylene-C在制造超轻超薄高效率光伏电池中的潜力.

References

  1. Wen Z, Yeh MH, Guo H, et al. Self-powered textile for wearable electronics by hybridizing fiber-shaped nanogenerators, solar cells, and supercapacitors. Sci Adv, 2016, 2: e1600097

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Koh TM, Wang H, Ng YF, et al. Halide perovskite solar cells for building integrated photovoltaics: Transforming building façades into power generators. Adv Mater, 2022, 2104661

  3. Tu YG, Xu GN, Yang XY, et al. Mixed-cation perovskite solar cells in space. Sci China-Phys Mech Astron, 2019, 62: 974221

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Tu Y, Wu J, Xu G, et al. Perovskite solar cells for space applications: Progress and challenges. Adv Mater, 2021, 33: 2006545

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Liu Z, You P, Xie C, et al. Ultrathin and flexible perovskite solar cells with graphene transparent electrodes. Nano Energy, 2016, 28: 151–157

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Zhang X, Öberg VA, Du J, et al. Extremely lightweight and ultraflexible infrared light-converting quantum dot solar cells with high power-per-weight output using a solution-processed bending durable silver nanowire-based electrode. Energy Environ Sci, 2018, 11: 354–364

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Kaltenbrunner M, White MS, Głowacki ED, et al. Ultrathin and lightweight organic solar cells with high flexibility. Nat Commun, 2012, 3: 770

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Li Y, Meng L, Yang YM, et al. High-efficiency robust perovskite solar cells on ultrathin flexible substrates. Nat Commun, 2016, 7: 10214

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Wu J, Que X, Hu Q, et al. Multi-length scaled silver nanowire grid for application in efficient organic solar cells. Adv Funct Mater, 2016, 26: 4822–4828

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Yu J, Chen P, Koh CW, et al. Phthalimide-based high mobility polymer semiconductors for efficient nonfullerene solar cells with power conversion efficiencies over 13%. Adv Sci, 2019, 6: 1801743

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Shi S, Chen P, Chen Y, et al. A narrow-bandgap n-type polymer semiconductor enabling efficient all-polymer solar cells. Adv Mater, 2019, 31: 1905161

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Chen P, Shi S, Wang H, et al. Aggregation strength tuning in difluorobenzoxadiazole-based polymeric semiconductors for high-performance thick-film polymer solar cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018, 10: 21481–21491

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Snaith HJ. Perovskites: The emergence of a new era for low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells. J Phys Chem Lett, 2013, 4: 3623–3630

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Yang X, Li L, Wu J, et al. Optimizing vertical crystallization for efficient perovskite solar cells by buried composite layers. Sol RRL, 2021, 5: 2100457

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Shi D, Adinolfi V, Comin R, et al. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals. Science, 2015, 347: 519–522

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Su R, Xu Z, Wu J, et al. Dielectric screening in perovskite photovoltaics. Nat Commun, 2021, 12: 2479

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Zhang Y, Wang Y, Zhao L, et al. Depth-dependent defect manipulation in perovskites for high-performance solar cells. Energy Environ Sci, 2021, 14: 6526–6535

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Yang X, Fu Y, Su R, et al. Superior carrier lifetimes exceeding 6 μs in polycrystalline halide perovskites. Adv Mater, 2020, 32: 2002585

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Xing G, Mathews N, Sun S, et al. Long-range balanced electron- and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3. Science, 2013, 342: 344–347

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Wu J, Chen J, Zhang Y, et al. Pinhole-free hybrid perovskite film with arbitrarily-shaped micro-patterns for functional optoelectronic devices. Nano Lett, 2017, 17: 3563–3569

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Wu J, Ye F, Yang W, et al. Perovskite single-crystal microarrays for efficient photovoltaic devices. Chem Mater, 2018, 30: 4590–4596

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Liu T, Chen K, Hu Q, et al. Inverted perovskite solar cells: Progresses and perspectives. Adv Energy Mater, 2016, 6: 1600457

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Kaltenbrunner M, Adam G, Glowacki ED, et al. Flexible high power-per-weight perovskite solar cells with chromium oxide-metal contacts for improved stability in air. Nat Mater, 2015, 14: 1032–1039

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Zhang H, Cheng J, Li D, et al. Toward all room-temperature, solution-processed, high-performance planar perovskite solar cells: A new scheme of pyridine-promoted perovskite formation. Adv Mater, 2017, 29: 1604695

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Kang S, Jeong J, Cho S, et al. Ultrathin, lightweight and flexible perovskite solar cells with an excellent power-per-weight performance. J Mater Chem A, 2019, 7: 1107–1114

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Yoon J, Kim U, Yoo Y, et al. Foldable perovskite solar cells using carbon nanotube-embedded ultrathin polyimide conductor. Adv Sci, 2021, 8: 2004092

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Lee G, Kim M, Choi YW, et al. Ultra-flexible perovskite solar cells with crumpling durability: Toward a wearable power source. Energy Environ Sci, 2019, 12: 3182–3191

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Yang L, Xiong Q, Li Y, et al. Artemisinin-passivated mixed-cation perovskite films for durable flexible perovskite solar cells with over 21% efficiency. J Mater Chem A, 2021, 9: 1574–1582

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Liu Y, Xu H, Dai W, et al. 2.5-Dimensional parylene C micropore array with a large area and a high porosity for high-throughput particle and cell separation. Microsyst Nanoeng, 2018, 4: 13

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Liu Y, Meng F, Shi J, et al. High mobility Ti, Zr and Ga-codoping In2O3 transparent conductive oxide films prepared at low temperatures. J Mater Sci-Mater Electron, 2021, 32: 3201–3210

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Chen S, Dai X, Xu S, et al. Stabilizing perovskite-substrate interfaces for high-performance perovskite modules. Science, 2021, 373: 902–907

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Hu Y, Niu T, Liu Y, et al. Flexible perovskite solar cells with high power-per-weight: Progress, application, and perspectives. ACS Energy Lett, 2021, 6: 2917–2943

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by Beijing Natural Science Foundation (JQ21005), the National Key R&D Program of China (2021YFB3800100 and 2021YFB3800101), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2020M670036), and the Ramp;D Fruit Fund (20210001).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Wu J and Chen P fabricated the samples, performed the most tests and wrote the manuscript. Wu J, Xu H, Huangfu Y and Wang W performed the CVD of parylene. Yu M tested the optical transmittance spectra. Li L tested the 3D optical microscopy images. Yan H and Yang X tested the SEM images. Huangfu Y performed the FOT process. Xiao Y and Zhao L tested the mechanical stability. Gong Q and Zhu R designed the project. All authors contributed to the general discussion and manuscript revision.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rui Zhu.

Additional information

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary information

Supporting data are available in the online version of the paper.

Jiang Wu received his bachelor’s degree from University of Science & Technology Beijing in 2013 and PhD degree from Peking University in 2018. He joined Peking University Yangtze Delta Institute of Optoelectronics in 2021. His research focuses on the development of transparent conductive electrodes and advanced photovoltaic devices.

Peng Chen received his bachelor’s degree from Zhengz-hou University in 2017 and master’s degree from Harbin Institute of Technology in 2019. He is currently a PhD student under the supervision of Prof. Rui Zhu at Peking University. His research interests focus on the development of high-performance inverted perovskite solar cells.

Rui Zhu is a professor in the State Key Laboratory of Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University. He received his bachelor’s degree from Nanjing University in 2003 and PhD degree from Fudan University in 2007. He joined the Department of Physics at Peking University in 2013. His research focuses on the development of advanced photovoltaic materials and devices.

Supporting Information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wu, J., Chen, P., Xu, H. et al. Ultralight flexible perovskite solar cells. Sci. China Mater. 65, 2319–2324 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-022-2075-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-022-2075-7

Keywords

  • flexible perovskite solar cells
  • ultralight
  • power-per-weight
  • super-flexible