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Ultralight flexible perovskite solar cells


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Ultrathin (thickness less than 10 μm) and ultralight flexible perovskite solar cells (FPSCs) have attracted extensive research enthusiasm as power sources for specific potential lightweight applications, such as drones, blimps, weather balloons and avionics. Currently, there is still a certain gap between the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ultrathin FPSCs and common FPSCs. This study demonstrates ultrathin FPSCs on 3-μm-thick parylene-C substrates via a flip-over transferring process. The Zr, Ti and Ga-doped indium oxide (ITGZO) film is employed as the bottom transparent electrode of ultrathin inverted FPSCs with a remarkable PCE of 20.2%, which is comparable to that based on common FPSCs. Devices on glasses and parylene-F (i.e., parylene-VT4) substrates were also constructed to verify the advantages of parylene-C. Furthermore, an excellent power-per-weight of 30.3 W g−1 is achieved attributed to remarkable PCE and ultrathin-ultralight substrates, demonstrating the great promise of fabricating efficient, ultrathin and ultralight solar cells with parylene-C films.


超轻超薄(薄于10 μm)柔性钙钛矿电池作为优秀的供能器件已在 全世界范围内吸引了研究者的目光. 特别地, 其具有超轻质的优势, 适 用于对器件重量较为敏感的特殊应用环境, 例如无人机、高空气球、 飞艇及航天器. 但目前, 超轻超薄器件与常规厚度柔性器件相比, 转化 效率仍有差距. 本文在3 μm厚、经平坦化转印处理的parylene-C衬底之 上, 采用锆、钛、镓掺杂的氧化铟作为透明电极, 实现了具有20.2%高 效率的超轻超薄柔性钙钛矿器件, 与常规厚度柔性器件处于同一水平. 我们同时制备了基于刚性玻璃和parylene-F(即parylene-VT4)衬底的参 比器件, 测试结果证明了parylene-C衬底的优势. 凭借着高效率和超轻 薄特性, parylene-C基钙钛矿器件实现了30.3 W g−1的超高能质比, 展示 出parylene-C在制造超轻超薄高效率光伏电池中的潜力.

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This work was financially supported by Beijing Natural Science Foundation (JQ21005), the National Key R&D Program of China (2021YFB3800100 and 2021YFB3800101), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2020M670036), and the Ramp;D Fruit Fund (20210001).

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Authors and Affiliations



Wu J and Chen P fabricated the samples, performed the most tests and wrote the manuscript. Wu J, Xu H, Huangfu Y and Wang W performed the CVD of parylene. Yu M tested the optical transmittance spectra. Li L tested the 3D optical microscopy images. Yan H and Yang X tested the SEM images. Huangfu Y performed the FOT process. Xiao Y and Zhao L tested the mechanical stability. Gong Q and Zhu R designed the project. All authors contributed to the general discussion and manuscript revision.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rui Zhu  (朱瑞).

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary information

Supporting data are available in the online version of the paper.

Jiang Wu received his bachelor’s degree from University of Science & Technology Beijing in 2013 and PhD degree from Peking University in 2018. He joined Peking University Yangtze Delta Institute of Optoelectronics in 2021. His research focuses on the development of transparent conductive electrodes and advanced photovoltaic devices.

Peng Chen received his bachelor’s degree from Zhengz-hou University in 2017 and master’s degree from Harbin Institute of Technology in 2019. He is currently a PhD student under the supervision of Prof. Rui Zhu at Peking University. His research interests focus on the development of high-performance inverted perovskite solar cells.

Rui Zhu is a professor in the State Key Laboratory of Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University. He received his bachelor’s degree from Nanjing University in 2003 and PhD degree from Fudan University in 2007. He joined the Department of Physics at Peking University in 2013. His research focuses on the development of advanced photovoltaic materials and devices.

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Wu, J., Chen, P., Xu, H. et al. Ultralight flexible perovskite solar cells. Sci. China Mater. 65, 2319–2324 (2022).

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