Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Schooling, othering, and the cultivation of Muslim students religious and civic identities

  • Published:
Journal of Religious Education Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

In this multiple case study I use Foucault’s theory of power/knowledge in exploring how Muslim students negotiate their religious and civic identities. Three themes are revealed. The first theme explores how Muslim students use their body and language in performing their religiosity and develop a counter-discourse of self expression and resistance in public schools. In the second theme I explain the liberating function of public education and the difference between dogmatic and non-dogmatic religious education. The third theme explicates how discourses of Orientalism and othering work in public schools, and how they affect the experiences and identities of Muslim students.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. Haram is an Arabic word which means sinful, or the things that are forbidden by God in the Islamic religion.

  2. According to Ayoob (2008), the term has been conventionally interpreted as armed struggle by Muslims to defend or Advance Islam against unbelievers. After a saying of the Prophet, some traditions emphasize “greater Jihad,” which means struggle against one’s inner temptations, as opposed to “lesser Jihad,” which connotes armed struggle.

References

  • Abu-El-Haj, R. (2010). The beauty of America: Nationalism, education, and the war on terror. Harvard Educational Review, 80(2), 242–274.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alcoff, L. (2003). Introduction: Identities, modern and post-modern. In L. Alcoff & E. Mendieta (Eds.), Identities: Race, class, gender, and nationality (pp. 312–329). Malden: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ba-Yunus, I., & Kone, K. (2006). Muslims in the United States. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burney, S. (2012). Pedagogy of the other: Edward Said, postcolonial theory, and strategies of critique. New York: Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  • Callaway, A. (2010). Literature review: The growing need to understand Muslim students. Multicultural Perspectives, 12(4), 217–222.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clark, M. (2003). Islam for dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cristillo, L. (2009). The case for the Muslim school as a civil society actor. In Y. Haddad, F. Senzai, & J. Smith (Eds.), Educating the Muslims of America (pp. 67–85). New York: Oxford University Press Inc.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Driel, B. (2004). Introduction. In B. Driel (Ed.), Confronting islamophobia in educational practice. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham.

    Google Scholar 

  • Erikson, E. (1968). Identity, youth and crisis. London: Faber & Faber.

    Google Scholar 

  • Esposito, J. (2010). The future of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Feinberg, W. (2006). For goodness sake: Religious schools and education for democratic citizenry. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Feinberg, W. (2013). Reconciling liberalism and pluralism in religious education. Religious Education, 108(3), 241–244.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fendler, L. (2010). Michel Foucault. New York: Continuum International Publication.

    Google Scholar 

  • Foucault, M. (1980). Power/Knowledge (trans. C. Gordon et al.). New York: Pantheon Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Foucault, M. (1982). The subject and power. Critical Inquiry, 8(4), 777–795.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Foucault, M. (1988). Technologies of the self. In L. Martin, H. Gutman, & P. Hutton (Eds.), Technologies of the self (pp. 16–49). Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Guba, E., & Lincoln, Y. (1982). Epistemological and methodological bases of naturalistic inquiry. Educational Communication and Technology, 30(4), 233–252.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haddad, Y. (1991). The Muslims of America. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haddad, Y., & Lummis, A. (1987). Islamic values in the United States: A comparative study. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haddad, Y., & Smith, J. (2009). Introduction. The challenge of Islamic education in North America. In Y. Haddad & J. Smith (Eds.), Educating the Muslims of America (pp. 67–85). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Hall, S. (1994). Cultural identity and diaspora. In P. Williams & L. Chrisman (Eds.), Colonial discourse and postcolonial theory: A reader (pp. 392–403). New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hall, S. (2001). Foucault: power, knowledge and discourse. In M. Wetherell, S. Yates, S. Taylor, & Open University (Eds.), Discourse theory and practice: A reader (pp. 72–81). London: SAGE.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hammersley, M., & Atkinson, P. (2007). Ethnography: Principles in practice. London: Routledge.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Haque, A. (2004). Islamophobia in North America: Confronting the menace. In B. Driel (Ed.), Confronting islamophobia in educational practice (pp. 1–18). Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hull, J. (2000). The transmission of religious prejudice. British Journal of Religious Education, 14(2), 69–72.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hussain, A. (2008). Recent western reflections on Islamic education. Religious Education, 103(5), 579–585.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, L. (2011). Islam and Muslims in U.S. Public Schools since September 11, 2001. Religious Education, 106(2), 162–180.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jaffe-Walter, R. (2013). Who would they talk about if we weren’t here? Harvard Educational Review, 83(4), 613–635.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kincheloe, J., & Steinberg, S. (2010). Why teach against Islamophobia: Striking the empire back. In J. Kincheloe, S. Steinberg, & C. Stonebanks (Eds.), Teaching against Islamophobia (pp. 3–29). New York: Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kumashiro, K. (2000). Toward a theory of anti-oppressive education. Review of Educational Research, 70(1), 25–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kunzman, R. (2006). Grappling with the good: Talking about religion and morality in public schools. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • McLoughlin, S. (2007). Islam (s) in context: Orientalism and the anthropology of Muslim societies and cultures. Journal of Beliefs and Values, 28(3), 273–296.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Merry, M. (2006). Islamic philosophy of education and Western Islamic Schools: Points of tension. In F. Salili & R. Hoosain (Eds.), Religion in multicultural education (pp. 41–70). Greenwich, Conn: IAP.

    Google Scholar 

  • Merry, M. (2007). Culture, identity, and Islamic schooling: A philosophical approach. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Michel, F. (1985). The use of pleasure: The history of sexuality. New York: Vintage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Niyozov, S., & Pluim, G. (2009). Teachers’ perspectives on the education of Muslim students: A missing voice in Muslim education research. Curriculum Inquiry, 39(5), 637–677.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Noakes, G. (2000). Muslims and the American press. In Y. Haddad & J. Esposito (Eds.), Muslims on the Americanization path (pp. 361–379). Atlanta: Scholars Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nord, W. (1995). Religion & American education: Rethinking a national dilemma. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ramadan, T. (2004). Western Muslims and the future of Islam. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Saada, N. (2013). Teachers’ perspectives on citizenship education in Islamic schools in Michigan. Theory and Research in Social Education, 41(2), 247–273.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Selcuk, M. (2012). The contribution of religious education to democratic culture. In H. Alexander & A. Agbaria (Eds.), Commitment, character, and citizenship: Religious education in liberal democracy (pp. 215–225). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shaheen, J. (2001). Reel Bad Arabs: How hollywood vilifies a people. New York: Olive Branch Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Subedi, B., Merryfield, M., Bashir-Ali, K., & Funel, E. (2006). Teachers’ and Students’ experiences working with religious issues. In F. Salili & R. Hoosain (Eds.), Religion in multicultural education (pp. 215–238). Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tan, C. (2014). Rationality and autonomy from the enlightenment and Islamic perspectives. Journal of Beliefs and Values, 35(3), 327–339.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilkinson, M. (2013). Introducing Islamic critical realism. Journal of Critical Realism, 12(4), 419–442.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yin, R. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Najwan Lbeeb Saada.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Saada, N.L. Schooling, othering, and the cultivation of Muslim students religious and civic identities. j. relig. educ. 64, 179–195 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40839-017-0042-8

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40839-017-0042-8

Keywords

Navigation