The significant fraction of manganese ores available across the globe is ferruginous with high gangue content. About 30% of these types of ores occur as fines (< 1 mm) and are dumped at the mines site, considering it as waste. Different methods have been tried to utilize these ores by 5–15% in the charge mix of submerged arc furnace by briquetting in roller press or by extrusion. A high amount of dust generation during charging limited its use. In this research work, a 30 kW DC extended arc plasma reactor is employed to extract FeMn from such a lean grade ore without performing any agglomeration. Flux is added targeting two different slag systems, CaO–Al2O3–SiO2 (CAS) and CaO–Al2O3–MgO–SiO2 (CAMS), to optimize the working temperature. FeMn20 alloy with a maximum manganese recovery of about 80% is achieved by following discard slag practice. The effect of basicity ratios on alloy yield and Mn recovery is studied; CaO/SiO2 ratio higher than 2.5 in charge composition shows a negative effect on Mn recovery. In the CAS system, less slag is generated than the charges adjusted to the CAMS system. However, in the CAMS system, the energy consumption is much lower than in the CAS system. The produced metal and slag are characterized by phase, composition, and microstructural analyses.
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Samal, S.K., Mishra, S., Mishra, B. et al. Effect of Slag Chemistry on Plasma Production of Ferromanganese from Alumina-Rich Ferruginous-Type Manganese Ore. J. Sustain. Metall. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40831-021-00376-w
- Lean manganese ore
- Thermal plasma
- Mn recovery