Recycling Waste Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules by Electrostatic Separation
- 24 Downloads
Photovoltaic (PV) modules contain both valuable and hazardous materials, which makes their recycling meaningful economically and environmentally. The recycling of the waste of PV modules is being studied and implemented in several countries. Current available recycling procedures include either the use of high-temperature processes, the use of leaching agents or a combination of both. In this study, waste of silicon-based PV modules are separated using an electrostatic separator after mechanical milling. An empirical study is used to verify if the separation works and to select and fix several parameters. Rotation speed of the roller and DC voltage are evaluated as a result of the separation of metals (silver and copper), silicon, glass, and polymers. The efficiency of metals’ separation is determined by acid leaching of the corresponding fractions followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES); that of polymer separation is determined by mass difference due to combustion of the corresponding fractions; and those of glass and silicon quantities are determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) followed by characterization using Rietveld quantitative phase analysis (RQPA). It is shown that the optimal separation is obtained under different operating voltages of 24 and 28 kV and a rotation speed of 30 RPM or higher. Furthermore, it is shown that there is no significant difference among the tested parameters. Results provide a new option in the recycling of waste of silicon PV modules that can and should be optimized.
KeywordsCrystalline silicon Electrostatic separation Material separation optimization Recycling Solar panel
The authors are grateful to Capes, CNPq, FINEP, and FAPERGS (Brazil) for their financial support.
- 2.Kalogirou S (2009) Solar energy engineering: processes and systems, 1st edn. Elsevier, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
- 4.Weckend S, Wade A, Heath G (2016) End-of-life management: solar photovoltaic panels. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), GoldenGoogle Scholar
- 12.Radziemska E (2014) Recycling of photovoltaic solar cells and modules-the state-of-art. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, SaarbruckenGoogle Scholar
- 13.Pinho JT, Galdino MA (2014) Engineering manual for photovoltaic systems retrieved from Rio de Janeiro: CEPEL—CRESESB. Manual de engenharia para sistemas fotovoltaicosGoogle Scholar
- 14.Hansen AD, Sorensen P, Hansen LH, Bindner H (2000) Models for a stand-alone PV system. Riso National Laboratory, RoskildeGoogle Scholar
- 16.Bruton TM (1994) Re-cycling of high value, high energy content components of silicon PV modules. In: Proceedings of 12th EC-PVSEC, pp 459–463Google Scholar
- 35.ERIEZ (2013) MMPM-618C Installation operation maintenance manual—laboratory electrostatic separator; high tension roll (HTR) separatorGoogle Scholar
- 37.Lutterotti L, Matthies S, Wenk H-R (1999) MAUD (material analysis using diffraction): a user friendly Java program for Rietveld texture analysis and more. In: Proceeding of the twelfth international conference on textures of materials (ICOTOM-12). NRC Research Press, Ottawa, p 1599Google Scholar
- 38.Young RA (1995) The Rietveld Method. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- 39.Bansal NP, Doremus RH (2013) Handbook of glass properties. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar