Sequential Extraction of Valuable Trace Elements from Bayer Process-Derived Waste Red Mud Samples

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Abstract

Bayer Process-derived red mud produced in China can be classified into three types according to chemical composition: high-iron diaspore red mud, low-iron diaspore red mud, and gibbsite red mud. The specific chemical and mineral compositions of three such typical Bayer-derived red mud samples have been characterized by XRF, ICP-MS, XRD, and SEM. These results, for example, indicate that GX (a high-iron diaspore red mud) contains more than 1015 μg/g lanthanides, 313 μg/g yttrium, 115 μg/g scandium, and 252 μg/g niobium and that HN (a low-iron diaspore red mud) has a high content of lithium (224 μg/g), whereas SD (a gibbsite red mud) possesses a very low valuable trace element content, except for gallium (59.4 μg/g). A sequential extraction procedure was carried out to assess the leachability of valuable trace elements in these three red mud samples. Applying the extraction procedure, 60% of the yttrium in GX and 65% of the lithium in HN could be extracted which would be of interest for trace metal recovery.

Keywords

Red mud Leachability Sequential extraction Rare earth elements Lithium 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial supports from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41402039), and Guizhou Provincial Science and Technology Foundation (No. J [2016] 1155). The authors are grateful to Dr W. Liu who provided the red mud samples.

Supplementary material

40831_2018_164_MOESM1_ESM.docx (24 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 24 kb)

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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hannian Gu
    • 1
  • Ning Wang
    • 1
  • Justin S. J. Hargreaves
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of High-temperature and High-pressure Study of the Earth’s Interior, Institute of GeochemistryChinese Academy of SciencesGuiyangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.West CHEM, School of Chemistry, Joseph Black BuildingUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK

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