Advertisement

Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy

, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 683–689 | Cite as

Development of Secondary Antimony Oxides from Metallurgical Slags for the Application in Plastic Products

  • Florian BinzEmail author
  • Bernd Friedrich
Thematic Section: Molten Slags, Fluxes, and Salts for Sustainable Processing
  • 93 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Molten Slags, Fluxes, and Salts for Sustainable Processing

Abstract

Recovery of antimony oxide for use in flame retardants from lead refining residues is evaluated using a fuming approach. A process is designed bottom-up. First, thermochemical calculations are made to determine process boundaries for a fuming process. Hence, a fuming model is created based on activity and vapor pressure data from literature, which is practically investigated using synthetic slag mixtures to describe fuming behavior in the binary Sb2O3–PbO system. The model shows that drosses can not be used in fuming process in their raw form but have to be preconditioned by the reduction of lead oxide. Preconditioning is investigated to define the best parameters in terms of selectivity and antimony enrichment in the oxide phase.

Keywords

Antimony Antimony white Fuming Modeling 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The project upon which this publication is based was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under Project Number 03X3592. This publication reflects the views of the authors only.

References

  1. 1.
    Anderson CG (2012) The metallurgy of antimony. Chem. Erde 72:3–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Roskill Information Services Ltd (2011) Study of the Antimony Market. Roskill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    European Commission, Report on Critical raw materials for the EU 2014. (European Union, 2015), http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52014DC0297. Accessed 23 November 2016
  4. 4.
    Zhao T-C (1988) The Metallurgy of Antimony. Central South University of Technology Press, ChangshaGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    International Antimony Association, Diantimony Trioxide Specifications, http://www.antimony.com/en/detail_diantimony-trioxide_33.aspx. Accessed 19 May 2015
  6. 6.
    Liu W, Yang T, Zhang D, Chen L, Liu Y (2014) A new pyrometallurgical process for producing antimony white from by-product of lead smelting. JOM 66:1694–1700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yaws CL (1995) Handbook of Vapor Pressure: Inorganic Compounds and Elements, vol 4. Gulf Publishing Company, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kopyto M, Przybyło W, Onderka B, Fitzner K (2009) Thermodynamic properties of Sb2O3-SiO2 and PbO-Sb2O3-SiO2 liquid solutions. Arch. Metall. Mater. 54:811–821Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G.S. Foerster, H.A. Stuhler, US Patent 4,194,904, New York, 1980Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Binz F, Friedrich B (2015) Recovery of antimony trioxide flame retardants from lead refining residues by slag conditioning and fuming. Chem. Ing. Tech. 87:1569–1579CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IME - Institute of Process Metallurgy and Metal RecyclingRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations