Skip to main content
Log in

Effect of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Parameters on the Microstructure and Texture Development in Superelastic Ti–18Zr–14Nb Alloy

  • Published:
Shape Memory and Superelasticity Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The effect of different laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) parameters on the phase composition, microstructure, and crystallographic texture of Ti–18Zr–14Nb alloy was studied. Two levels of laser power, scanning speed, and hatching space were used, while the layer thickness was kept constant. The resulting volume energy density was ranged from 20 to 60 J/mm3, and the build rate, from 12 to 36 cm3/h. The manufactured coupons were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the greater influence observed on the microstructure and texture development was caused by the value of laser power, while the lowest, by that of hatching space. Based on the results obtained, the processing optimization strategy aimed at improving the density, superelastic, and fatigue properties of the L-PBF manufactured Ti–18Zr–14Nb alloy was proposed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Kim HY, Hashimoto S, Kim JI, Hosoda H, Miyazaki S (2004) Mechanical properties and shape memory behavior of Ti–Nb alloys. Mater Trans 45(7):2443–2448

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Zhou YL, Niinomi M, Akahori T (2004) Effects of Ta content on Young’s modulus and tensile properties of binary Ti–Ta alloys for biomedical applications. Mater Sci Eng A 371(1):283–290

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Kim JI, Kim HY, Inamura T, Hosoda H, Miyazaki S (2006) Effect of annealing temperature on microstructure and shape memory characteristics of Ti–22Nb–6Zr (at%) biomedical alloy. Mater Trans 47(3):505–512

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Zhou YL, Niinomi M, Akahori T (2008) Changes in mechanical properties of Ti alloys in relation to alloying additions of Ta and Hf. Mater Sci Eng A483:153–156

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Kim HY, Fu J, Tobe H, Kim JL, Miyazaki S (2015) Crystal structure, transformation strain, and superelastic property of Ti–Nb–Zr and Ti–Nb–Ta alloys. Shape Memory Superelast 1(2):107–116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Konopatsky AS, Dubinskiy SM, Zhukova YS, Sheremetyev V, Brailovski V, Prokoshkin SD, Filonov MR (2017) Ternary Ti–Zr–Nb and quaternary Ti–Zr–Nb–Ta shape memory alloys for biomedical applications: structural features and cyclic mechanical properties. Mater Sci Eng A 702:301–311

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Sheremetyev V, Brailovski V, Prokoshkin S, Inaekyan K, Dubinskiy S (2016) Functional fatigue behavior of superelastic beta Ti–22Nb–6Zr (at%) alloy for load-bearing biomedical applications. Mater Sci Eng C 58:935–944

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Inaekyan K, Brailovski V, Prokoshkin S, Pushin V, Dubinskiy S, Sheremetyev V (2015) Comparative study of structure formation and mechanical behavior of age-hardened Ti–Nb–Zr and Ti–Nb–Ta shape memory alloys. Mater Charact 103:65–74

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Kreitcberg A, Brailovski V, Turenne S (2017) Effect of heat treatment and hot isostatic pressing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 625 alloy processed by laser powder bed fusion. Mater Sci Eng A 689:1–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Baicheng Z, Dembinski L, Coddet C (2013) The study of the laser parameters and environment variables effect on mechanical properties of high compact parts elaborated by selective laser melting 316L powder. Mater Sci Eng A 584:21–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Riemer A, Leuders S, Thone M, Richard HA, Troster T, Niendorf T (2014) On the fatigue crack growth behavior in 316L stainless steel manufactured by selective laser melting. Eng Fract Mech 120:15–25

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Rafi HK, Pal D, Patil N, Starr TL, Stucker BS (2014) Microstructure and mechanical behavior of 17-4 precipitation hardenable steel processed by selective laser melting. J Mater Eng Perform 23(12):4421–4428

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Sercombe T, Jones N, Day R, Kop A (2008) Heat treatment of Ti–6Al–7Nb components produced by selective laser melting. Rapid Protot J 14(5):300–304

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Thijs L, Verhaeghe F, Craeghs T, Humbeeck JV, Kruth JP (2010) A study of the microstructural evolution during selective laser melting of Ti–6Al–4V. Acta Mater 58(9):3303–3312

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Takaichi A, Suyalatu, Nakamoto T, Joko N, Nomura N, Tsutsumi Y, Migita S, Doi H, Kurosu S, Chiba A, Wakabayashi N, Igarashi Y, Hanawa T (2013) Microstructures and mechanical properties of Co–29Cr–6Mo alloy fabricated by selective laser melting process for dental applications. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 21:67–76

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Rao H, Giet S, Yang K, Wu X, Davies CHJ (2016) The influence of processing parameters on aluminium alloy A357 manufactured by selective laser melting. Mater Des 109:334–346

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Yang J, Yu H, Yin J, Gao M, Wang Z, Zeng X (2016) Formation and control of martensite in Ti–6Al–4V alloy produced by selective laser melting. Mater Des 108:308–318

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Song B, Dong S, Coddet P, Liao H, Coddet C (2014) Fabrication of NiCr alloy parts by selective laser melting: columnar microstructure and anisotropic mechanical behavior. Mater Des 53:1–7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Dongdong G, Hagedorn YC, Meiners W, Meng G, Santos Batista RJ, Wissenbach K, Poprawe R (2012) Densification behavior, microstructure evolution, and wear performance of selective laser melting processed commercially pure titanium. Acta Mater 60(9):3849–3860

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Bauer T, Dawson K, Spierings AB, Konrad W (2015) Microstructure and mechanical characterisation of SLM processed Haynes 230. In: 26th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, pp 813–822

  21. Simonelli M, Tse YY, Tuck C (2014) On the texture formation of selective laser melted Ti–6Al–4V. Metall Mater Trans A 45(6):2863–2872

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Kreitcberg A, Brailovski V, Prokoshkin S (2017) New biocompatible near-beta Ti–Zr–Nb alloy processed by laser powder bed fusion: process optimization. J Mater Process Technol, Submitted

  23. Nelson JB, Riley DP (1945) An experimental investigation of extrapolation methods in the derivation of accurate unit-cell dimensions of crystals. Proc Phys Soc 57:160–177

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Kou S (2003) Welding metallurgy. Wiley, Hoboken

    Google Scholar 

  25. Ramos JA, Murphy J, Lappo K, Beaman J (2002) Single-layer deposits of nickel base superalloy by means of selective laser melting. In: The solid freeform fabrication symposium, Austin, TX, pp 211–223

  26. Otooni MA (1998) Elements of rapid solidification. Springer, New York

    Book  Google Scholar 

  27. Amine T, Newkirk JW, Liou F (2014) An investigation of the effect of direct metal deposition parameters on the characteristics of the deposited layers. Case Stud Therm Eng 3:21–34

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Kreitcberg AY, Prokoshkin SD, Brailovski V, Korotitsky AV (2014) Role of the structure and texture in the realization of the recovery strain resource of the nanostructured Ti–50.26 at%Ni alloy. Phys Met Metall 115(9):926–947

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors would like to express their appreciation for the financial support provided by NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada) and the Ministry of Education and Sciences of Russian Federation. The authors express their gratitude to A. Kazakbiev for the X-ray analysis.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to V. Brailovski.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kreitcberg, A., Brailovski, V., Sheremetyev, V. et al. Effect of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Parameters on the Microstructure and Texture Development in Superelastic Ti–18Zr–14Nb Alloy. Shap. Mem. Superelasticity 3, 361–372 (2017).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: