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Effect of Rare-Earth (La, Nd, Pr, Y) Doping on the Properties of X-Y-Ce-Zr-O and X-Y-Z-Ce-Zr-O Nanodispersions for GPF Applications


The effect of different rare-earth dopants (Nd, Y, La, Pr) and their combination on the final properties of CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxide nanodispersions for gasoline particulate filter applications was investigated. The presence of additional two or three dopants improves the thermal stability as they were found to maintain their cubic (c) or pseudo-cubic (t″) phase symmetry after high temperature ageing at 1150°C in contrast to the pure ceria–zirconia reference samples. Doping also improved the surface area and porosity and the thermal stability towards sintering of primary particles. It was observed that La/Pr sample shows initial mesoporosity and the highest thermal stability. A clear link between structural/thermal stability and the oxygen storage performance could be made. The rare-earth doped samples showed improved reduction ability and were reduced in H2 at temperatures 591-597°C compared to pure ceria–zirconia samples (616-617°C). Furthermore, they were also able to be partially re-oxidized at 50°C whereas the pure ceria–zirconia samples were not. This could be explained by the improved oxygen mobility in the t″ phase for doped materials. Tested samples showed good catalytic performance in the reaction of soot oxidation by TG-DTA. SEM imaging of coated cordierite particulate filters showed that the nanodispersions were coated in a manner that eliminated the small pores in the filter wall and reduced the size of the larger pores. According to literature analysis, these coating characteristics would offer improved performance in relation to filtration efficiency and backpressure.

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Particle number


Gasoline direct injection


Gasoline particulate filter


Three-way catalyst


Oxygen storage capacity


Transmission electron microscopy


Acoustic attenuation spectroscopy


Dynamic light scattering


X-ray diffraction


Temperature-programmed reduction


Scanning electron microscopy






Thermal conductivity detector


Isoelectric point


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The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by Dr. Jonathan Hinks, School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, with the TEM imaging.


This work was supported by Luxfer MEL Technologies.

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Study conceptualization was done by DS. All authors contributed equally to the design of the study. Sample preparation and data collection were performed by LR. Initial drafts of the manuscript were written by LR and IW, and all authors were involved in review and editing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to I. Wiseman.

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The authors are employees of Luxfer MEL Technologies.

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Wiseman, I., Roebuck, L. & Scapens, D. Effect of Rare-Earth (La, Nd, Pr, Y) Doping on the Properties of X-Y-Ce-Zr-O and X-Y-Z-Ce-Zr-O Nanodispersions for GPF Applications. Emiss. Control Sci. Technol. 8, 96–108 (2022).

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  • Gasoline particulate filter
  • Ceria–zirconia
  • Nanodispersion
  • Particulate number
  • Emission control