Spatial Distribution of CO2 Verified Emissions: a Kriging-Based Approach


Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) anthropogenic emissions is an essential goal for combating climate change, and firms and policymakers must be aware of the main polluting areas of intervention for health, economic and environmental improvement, and mapping emissions is a relevant instrument to measure their geospatial distribution in order to reach that goal. Verified carbon emissions within the European Union mechanisms are a direct source of information that has not been previously used for mapping purposes. Through the application of universal kriging techniques, the proposed model shows the spatial variations of CO2 industrial emissions in the Spanish provinces and the contribution of the most polluting sectors, helping to understand the spatial CO2 emission dynamics in order to establish adequate environmental policies.

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The authors thank the Subdirectorate General for Emissions Trading and Flexibility Mechanisms, within the Spanish Climate Change Office (OECC), a part of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Food and the Environment, for providing the data needed for this study, in the appropriate format for econometric analysis.


This contribution was carried out with funding and support from the Social-Labour Statistics and Demography project (30.BB.11.1101), being conducted at the Faculty of Labour Sciences (University of Granada).

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Table 4 Categories of activities and gases included in the scope of the Law 1/2005, of March 9, which regulates the regime for trading greenhouse gas emission rights
Table 5 Environmental studies using kriging-based methods

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Huete-Morales, M.D., Villar-Rubio, E. & Galán-Valdivieso, F. Spatial Distribution of CO2 Verified Emissions: a Kriging-Based Approach. Emiss. Control Sci. Technol. 7, 63–77 (2021).

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  • Carbon dioxide
  • EU ETS
  • Kriging
  • Verified emissions
  • Spatial statistics