The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristic of nanoparticles under consideration of sub-23-nm particles from a 1.8-l direct injection (DI) gasoline engine under stoichiometric air/fuel conditions in the exhaust gas system. For future CO2 challenges, the usage of DI—instead of port fuel injection (PFI)—gasoline engines is unavoidable. Therefore, a state of the art particle management program-particle number (PN) system, the Horiba SPCS (2100) with an integrated CPC (condensation particle counter), was recalibrated from a 50% cutoff (D50%) at 23 nm down to a cutoff at 10 nm and the PCRF (particle concentration reduction factor) for sizes smaller than 23 nm was checked. Two different modal points, out of a representative Real Driving Emission (RDE) cycle, were investigated with both calibrations, D50% = 10 nm and D50% = 23 nm. For these different load points, the fuel pressure (FUP) and the start of injection (SOI) were varied, to represent the difference in the structure and the ratio conc(10 nm)/conc(23 nm) of the nanoparticle emissions. The particle characterization includes the particle number (PN), the particle size distribution (PSD), and the particle mass (PM). The particle number was measured with Horiba SPCS (2100). The particle size distribution was analyzed with a Grimm differential mobility analyzer (DMA) in combination with a Faraday cup electrometer (FCE). Micro Soot and Pegasor were used to determine the PM, and an optical characterization was done with a 120-kV Phillips CM12 transmission electron microscope (TEM). The position of all particle measurement systems was downstream the three-way catalyst (TWC). The results of this investigation showed that a higher injection pressure decreases the PN (without consideration of sub-23-nm particles) in general. The ratio conc(10 nm)/conc(23 nm) was therefore higher, because smaller particles, especially ash particles, were less reduced from the FUP. This means higher FUP tends to a higher ratio. For the SOI, the main reasons of the ratio differences were explained by an encroachment between the injection jet and the piston, the valve and the wall.
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- CO2 :
condensation particle counter
constant volume sampler
differential mobility analyzer
design of experiment
diesel particulate filter
electronic control unit
Faraday cup electrometer
gasoline direct injection
gasoline particle filter
working group on pollution and energy
high efficiency particulate air
multiple port injection
- NOx :
particle concentration reduction factor
particle measurement program
particle size distribution
Pegasor Particle Sensor
real driving emissions
start of injection
trans electron microscope
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
Volatile Particle Remover
Worldwide Light duty Test Procedure
AVL List GmbH: AVL Micro Soot Sensor Applicaton Paper
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Schwanzer, P., Rabl, HP., Loders, S. et al. Difference in the Tailpipe Particle Number by Consideration of Sub-23-nm Particles for Different Injection Settings of a GDI Engine. Emiss. Control Sci. Technol. 5, 7–22 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40825-019-0114-1
- Particle number