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Difference in the Tailpipe Particle Number by Consideration of Sub-23-nm Particles for Different Injection Settings of a GDI Engine

A Publisher Correction to this article was published on 13 March 2019

This article has been updated


The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristic of nanoparticles under consideration of sub-23-nm particles from a 1.8-l direct injection (DI) gasoline engine under stoichiometric air/fuel conditions in the exhaust gas system. For future CO2 challenges, the usage of DI—instead of port fuel injection (PFI)—gasoline engines is unavoidable. Therefore, a state of the art particle management program-particle number (PN) system, the Horiba SPCS (2100) with an integrated CPC (condensation particle counter), was recalibrated from a 50% cutoff (D50%) at 23 nm down to a cutoff at 10 nm and the PCRF (particle concentration reduction factor) for sizes smaller than 23 nm was checked. Two different modal points, out of a representative Real Driving Emission (RDE) cycle, were investigated with both calibrations, D50% = 10 nm and D50% = 23 nm. For these different load points, the fuel pressure (FUP) and the start of injection (SOI) were varied, to represent the difference in the structure and the ratio conc(10 nm)/conc(23 nm) of the nanoparticle emissions. The particle characterization includes the particle number (PN), the particle size distribution (PSD), and the particle mass (PM). The particle number was measured with Horiba SPCS (2100). The particle size distribution was analyzed with a Grimm differential mobility analyzer (DMA) in combination with a Faraday cup electrometer (FCE). Micro Soot and Pegasor were used to determine the PM, and an optical characterization was done with a 120-kV Phillips CM12 transmission electron microscope (TEM). The position of all particle measurement systems was downstream the three-way catalyst (TWC). The results of this investigation showed that a higher injection pressure decreases the PN (without consideration of sub-23-nm particles) in general. The ratio conc(10 nm)/conc(23 nm) was therefore higher, because smaller particles, especially ash particles, were less reduced from the FUP. This means higher FUP tends to a higher ratio. For the SOI, the main reasons of the ratio differences were explained by an encroachment between the injection jet and the piston, the valve and the wall.

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Change history

  • 13 March 2019

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Figures 6, 11 and 13 were not properly processed. The original version has been corrected.



black carbon


carbon monoxide

CO2 :

carbon dioxide


condensation particle counter


constant volume sampler


differential mobility analyzer


design of experiment


diesel particulate filter


electronic control unit


Faraday cup electrometer


fuel pressure


gasoline direct injection


gasoline particle filter


working group on pollution and energy




high efficiency particulate air


multiple port injection

NOx :

nitrogen oxide


particle concentration reduction factor


particulate mass


particle measurement program


particle number


particle size distribution


Pegasor Particle Sensor


real driving emissions


radio frequency


start of injection


trans electron microscope


three-way catalyst




United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


Volatile Particle Remover


Worldwide Light duty Test Procedure


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Correspondence to P. Schwanzer.

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The original version of this article was revised: Figures 6, 11 and 13 were not properly processed.

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Schwanzer, P., Rabl, HP., Loders, S. et al. Difference in the Tailpipe Particle Number by Consideration of Sub-23-nm Particles for Different Injection Settings of a GDI Engine. Emiss. Control Sci. Technol. 5, 7–22 (2019).

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  • Particle number
  • GDI
  • DoE