Alessandri, T. M., Cerrato, D., & Eddleston, K. A. (2018). The mixed gamble of internationalization in family and nonfamily firms: The moderating role of organizational slack. Global Strategy Journal, 8(1), 46–72.
Altman, E. I. (1968). Financial ratios, discriminant analysis and the prediction of corporate bankruptcy. Journal of Finance, 23, 589–609.
Altman, E. I., Iwanicz-Drozdowska, M., Laitinen, E. K., & Suvas, A. (2017). Financial distress prediction in an international context: A review and empirical analysis of Altman’s Z-score model. Journal of International Financial Management and Accounting, 28(2), 131–171.
Arregle, J.-L., Hitt, M. A., Sirmon, D. G., & Very, P. (2007). The development of organizational social capital: Attributes of family firms. The Journal of Management Studies, 44(1), 73–95.
Arrondo-García, R., Fernández-Méndez, C., & Menéndez-Requejo, S. (2016). The growth and performance of family businesses during the global financial crisis: The role of the generation in control. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 7(4), 227–237.
Astrachan, J. H., Klein, S. B., & Smyrnios, K. X. (2002). The F-PEC scale of family influence: A proposal for solving the family business definition problem. Family Business Review, 15(1), 45–58.
Backman, M., & Palmberg, J. (2015). Contextualizing small family firms: How does the urban–rural context affect firm employment growth? Journal of Family Business Strategy, 6(4), 247–258.
Basco, R. (2013). The family’s effect on family firm performance: A model testing the demographic and essence approaches. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 4(1), 42–66.
Bassanini, A., Breda, T., Caroli, E., & Reberioux, A. (2013). Working in family firms: Paid less but more secure? Evidence from French-matched employer-employee data. ILR Review, 66(22), 433–466.
Baù, M., Chirico, F., Pittino, D., Backman, M., & Klaessonn, J. (2019). Roots to grow: family firms and local embeddedness in rural and urban contexts. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 43(2), 360–385.
Bauweraerts, J., Diaz-Moriana, V., & Arzubiaga, U. (2020). A mixed gamble approach of the impact of family management on firm’ s growth: a longitudinal analysis. European Management Review, 17(3), 747–764.
Beck, T., Demirguc-Kunt, A., Laeven, L., & Levine, R. (2008). Finance, firm size, and growth. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 40(7), 1379–1405.
Berrone, P., Cruz, C., & Gómez-Mejia, L. R. (2012). Socioemotional wealth in family firms: theoretical dimensions, assessment approaches, and agenda for future research. Family Business Review, 25(3), 258–279.
Bjuggren, C. M., Daunfeldt, S.-O., & Johansson, D. (2013). High-growth firms and family ownership. JournalofSmall Business and Entrepreneurship, 26, 365–385.
Block, J. (2010). Family management, family ownership, and downsizing: evidence from S&P 500 firms. Family Business Review, 23(2), 109–130.
Bromiley, P. (2009). The behavioral foundations of strategic management. Wiley.
Bromiley, P. (2010). Looking at prospect theory. Strategic Management Journal, 31(12), 1357–1370.
Calabrò, A., Campopiano, G., & Basco, R. (2017). Principal-principal conflicts and family firm growth: The moderating role of business family identity. Journal of Family Business Management, 7(3), 291–308.
Cambrea, D. R., Ponomareva, Y., Pittino, D., & Minichilli, A. (2021). Strings attached: Socioemotional wealth mixed gambles in the cash management choices of family firms. Journal of Family Business Strategy, First Online Publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfbs.2021.100466
Campopiano, G., Brumana, M., Minola, T., & Cassia, L. (2020). Does growth represent chimera or Bellerophon for a family business? The role of entrepreneurial orientation and family influence nuances. European Management Review, 17(3), 765–783.
Carr, J. C., Cole, M. S., Ring, J. K., & Blettner, D. P. (2011). A measure of variations in internal social capital among family firms. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(6), 1207–1227.
Casillas, J. C., & Moreno, A. M. (2010). The relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and growth: The moderating role of family involvement. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 22(3–4), 265–291.
Casillas, J. C., Moreno, A., & Barbero, J. (2010). A configurational approach of the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and growth of family firms. Family Business Review, 23(1), 27–44.
Casillas, J. C., Moreno-Menéndez, A. M., Barbero, J. L., & Clinton, E. (2019). Retrenchment strategies and family involvement: the role of survival risk. Family Business Review, 32(1), 58–75.
Chen, Q., Hou, W., Li, W., Wilson, C., & Wu, Z. (2014). Family control, regulatory environment, and the growth of entrepreneurial firms: International evidence. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 22(2), 132–144.
Chrisman, J. J., Chua, J. H., Pearson, A. W., & Barnett, T. (2012). Family involvement, family influence, and family-centered non-economic goals in small firms. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 36(2), 267–293.
Chrisman, J. J., & Patel, P. C. (2012). Variations in R&D investments of family and nonfamily firms: Behavioral agency and myopic loss aversion perspectives. Academy of Management Journal, 55(4), 976–997.
Cirillo, A., Huybrechts, J., Mussolino, D., Sciascia, S., & Voordeckers, W. (2020a). Researching family business growth. European Management Review, 17(3), 733–746.
Cirillo, A., Muñoz-Bullón, F., Sánchez-Bueno, M. J., & Sciascia, S. (2020b). Employee downsizing and sales internationalization strategy in family firms. Journal of Family Business Strategy, First Online Publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfbs.2020.100354
Colombo, M. G., De Massis, A., Piva, E., Rossi-Lamastra, C., & Wright, M. (2014). Sales and employment changes in entre- preneurial ventures with family ownership: empirical evidence from high-tech industries. Journal of Small Business Management, 52(2), 226–245.
Colombo, M. G., & Delmastro, M. (2008). The economics of organizational design: theoretical insights and empirical evidence. Palgrave Macmillan.
Cruz, C., Gomez-Mejia, L. R., & Becerra, M. (2010). Perceptions of benevolence and the design of agency contracts: CEO-TMT relationships in family firms. Academy of Management Journal, 53(1), 69–89.
Cruz, C., & Nordqvist, M. (2012). Entrepreneurial orientation in family firms: A generational perspective. Small Business Economics, 38(1), 33–49.
Davidsson, P., Achtenhagen, L., & Naldi, L. (2010). Small firm growth. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 6(2), 69–166.
Davidsson, P., Steffens, P., & Fitzsimmons, J. (2008). Performance assessment in entrepreneurship and management research: Is there a pro-growth bias?
Debicki, B. J., Kellermanns, F. W., Chrisman, J. J., Pearson, A. W., & Spencer, B. A. (2016). Journal of family business strategy development of a socioemotional wealth importance (SEWi) scale for family firm research. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 7(1), 47–57.
Delmar, F. (2006). Measuring growth: Methodological considerations and empirical results. In F. Delmar & J. Wiklund (Eds.), Entrepreneurship and the growth of firms (pp. 62–84). Edward Elgar Publishing.
Delmar, F., & Wiklund, J. (2008). The effect of small business managers’ growth motivation on firm growth: A longitudinal study. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(3), 437–457.
Diéguez-Soto, J., Martínez-Romero, M. J., Corten, M., & Michiels, A. (2021). The impact of the CEO’s financial literacy on family SMEs’ growth: the moderating role of generational stage. Baltic Journal of Management First Online Publication. https://doi.org/10.1108/BJM-01-2021-0003
Dorling, D., & Simpson, S. (1999). Statistics in society: The arithmetic of politics. EOUP.
Dyer, W. G. (1998). Integrating professional management into a family owned business. Family Business Review, 2(3), 221–235.
Eddleston, K. A., & Kellermanns, F. W. (2007). Destructive and productive family relationships: A stewardship theory perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(4), 545–565.
Eurostat. (2015). Regions in the European Union - NUTS 2013/EU-28. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20151003094805/; http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/3859598/6948381/KS-GQ-14-006-EN-N.pdf/93b993f1-b749-49f9-8cfa-2b2b3db16fa1
Feldman, E., Amit, F., & Villalonga, B. (2016). Corporate divestitures and family control. Strategic Management Journal, 37(3), 429–446.
Gallo, M., Tàpies, J., & Cappuyns, K. (2004). Comparison of family and nonfamily business: Financial logic and personal preferences. Family Business Review, 17(4), 303–318.
George, G. (2005). Slack resources and the performance of privately held firms. Academy of Management Journal, 48(4), 661–676.
Gjergji, R., Lazzarotti, V., Visconti, F., & García-Marco, T. (2020). Innovation performance and technological collaboration with business partners in family firms. Piccola Impresa/small Business, 1, 86–111.
Gómez-Mejía, L. R., Campbell, J. T., Martin, G., Hoskisson, R. E., Makri, M., & Sirmon, D. G. (2014a). Socioemotional wealth as a mixed gamble: revisiting family firm R&D investments with the behavioral agency model. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(6), 1351–1374.
Gómez-Mejia, L. R., Chirico, F., Martin, G., & Bau, M. (2021). Best among the worst or worst among the best? socioemotional wealth and risk-performance returns for family and non-family firms under financial distress. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, first online article.
Gómez-Mejia, L. R., Cruz, C., Berrone, P., & De Castro, J. (2011). The bind that ties: Socioemotional wealth preservation in family firms. Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 653–707.
Gómez-Mejia, L. R., Cruz, C., & Imperatore, C. (2014b). Financial reporting and the protection of socioemotional wealth in family-controlled firms. European Accounting Review, 23(3), 387–402.
Gómez-Mejía, L. R., & Herrero, I. (2022). Back to square one: The measurement of Socioemotional Wealth (SEW). Journal of Family Business Strategy, First Online Article. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfbs.2021.100480
Gómez-Mejia, L. R., Patel, P. C., & Zellweger, T. M. (2018). In the horns of the dilemma: socioemotional wealth, financial wealth, and acquisitions in family firms. Journal of Management, 44(4), 1369–1397.
Gómez-Mejía, L. R., Takács Haynes, K., Núñez-Nickel, M., Jacobson, K. J. L., & Moyano Fuentes, J. (2007). Socioemotional wealth and business risk in family-controlled firms: evidence from spanish olive oil mills. Administrative Science Quarterly, 52(1), 106–137.
Greene, W. H. (2003). Econometric analysis. Prentice Hall.
Greve, H. R. (2008). A behavioral theory of firm growth: Sequential attention to size and performance goals. Academy of Management Journal, 51(3), 476–494.
Hambrick, D. C., & Snow, C. C. (1977). A contextual model of strategic decision making in organizations. Academy of Management Proceedings, 1977, 109–112.
Hamelin, A. (2013). Influence of family ownership on small business growth. Evidence from French SMEs. Small Business Economics, 41(3), 563–579.
Hayton, J. C., George, G., & Zahra, S. A. (2002). National culture and entrepreneurship: a review of behavioral research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26(4), 33–52.
Hussinger, K., & Issah, A.-B. (2019). Firm acquisitions by family firms: a mixed gamble approach. Family Business Review, 32(4), 354–377.
IEF and Red de Cátedras de Empresa Familiar. (2015). La Empresa Familiar en España. Instituto de la Empresa Familiar.
IEF and Red de Cátedras de Empresa Familiar. (2018). Factores de Competitividad y Análisis Financiero en la Empresa Familiar. Instituto de la Empresa Familiar.
Ingram, A. E., Lewis, M. W., Barton, S., & Gartner, W. B. (2016). Paradoxes and innovation in family firms: The role of paradoxical thinking. Entrepreneurhip Theory and Practice, 40(1), 161–176.
Iyer, D. N., & Miller, K. D. (2008). Performance feedback, slack, and the timing of acquisitions. Academy of Management Journal, 51(4), 808–822.
James, H. (2006). Family capitalism. Belknap-Harvard University Press.
Jean, R., Deng, Z., Kim, D., & Yuan, X. (2016). Assessing endogeneity issues in international marketing research. International Marketing Review, 33, 483–512.
Johnston, J. (1984). Econometric methods (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill.
Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47(2), 263–291.
Kappes, I., & Schmid, T. (2013). The effect of family governance on corporate time horizons. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 21(6), 547–566.
Kellermanns, F. W., Eddleston, K. A., Barnett, T., & Pearson, A. (2008). An exploratory study of family member characteristics and involvement: Effects on entrepreneurial behavior in the family firm. Family Business Review, 21(1), 1–14.
Kotlar, J., De Massis, A., Frattini, F., Bianchi, M., & Fang, H. (2013). Technology acquisition in family and nonfamily firms: A longitudinal analysis of spanish manufacturing firms. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 30(6), 1073–1088.
Kotlar, J., Fang, H., De Massis, A., & Frattini, F. (2014). Profitability goals, control goals, and the R&D investment decisions of family and nonfamily firms. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(6), 1128–1145.
Laffranchini, G., Hadjimarcou, J. S., & Kim, S. H. (2020). The impact of socioemotional wealth on decline-stemming strategies of family firms. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 24(2), 185–210.
Lähdesmäki, M., Siltaoja, M., & Spence, L. (2019). Stakeholder salience for small businesses: a social proximity perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 158(2), 373–385.
Le Breton-Miller, I., & Miller, D. (2013). The two faces of socioemotional wealth. Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings. Montreal.
Lingo, E. L., & Elmes, M. B. (2019). Institutional preservation work at a family business in crisis: micro-processes, emotions, and nonfamily members. Organization Studies, 40(6), 887–916.
López-García, P., & Puente, S. (2006). Business demography in Spain: determinants of firm survival Working Papers 0608, Banco de España.
Lumpkin, G., & Brigham, K. H. (2011). Long-term orientation and intertemporal choice in family firms. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 35(6), 1149–1169.
Lumpkin, G. T., Brigham, K. H., & Moss, T. W. (2010). Long-term orientation: Implications for the entrepreneurial orientation and performance of family businesses. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 22(3–4), 241–264.
Mansfield, E. R., & Helmsb, B. P. (1982). Detecting Multicollinearity. The American Statistician, 36(3a), 158–160.
Manzaneque, M., Diéguez-Soto, J., & Garrido-Moreno, A. (2018). Technological Innovation Inputs, Outputs, and Family Management: Evidence from Spanish Manufacturing Firms. Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice, 20(4), 299–325.
Manzaneque, M., Rojo-Ramírez, A. A., Diéguez-Soto, J., & Martínez-Romero, M. J. (2020). How negative aspiration performance gaps affect innovation efficiency. Small Business Economics, 54(1), 209–233.
Martin, G. P., Gomez-Mejia, L. R., & Wiseman, R. M. (2013). Executive stock options as mixed gambles: Revisiting the behavioral agency model. Academy of Management Journal, 56(2), 451–472.
Martínez-Alonso, R., Martínez-Romero, M. J., & Rojo-Ramírez, A. A. (2018). The importance of technological innovation in Spain: Evidence before, during and after the global economic crisis. Revista De La Asociación Española De Contabilidad y Administración De Empresas, 124, 25–28.
Martínez-Alonso, R., Martínez-Romero, M. J., & Rojo-Ramírez, A. A. (2020). Refining the influence of family involvement in management on firm performance: The mediating role of technological innovation efficiency. BRQ Business Research Quarterly, First Online Article. https://doi.org/10.1177/2340944420957330
Mazzelli, A., Kotlar, J., & De Massis, A. (2018). Blending in while standing out: Selective conformity and new product introducion in family firms. EntrepreneurshipTheory and Practice, 42(2), 206–230.
Miller, D., & Le Breton-Miller, I. (2014). Deconstructing socioemotional wealth. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(4), 713–720.
Miller, D., Le Breton-Miller, I., & Scholnick, B. (2008). Stewardship vs. stagnation: An empirical comparison of small family and non-family businesses. Journal of Management Studies, 45(1), 51–78.
Miller, D., Lee, J., Chang, S., & Le Breton-Miller, I. (2009). Filling the institutional void: The social behavior and performance of family vs non-family technology firms in emerging markets. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(5), 802–817.
Miroshnychenko, I., De Massis, A., Miller, D., & Barontini, R. (2021). Family business growth around the world. Entrepreneurhip Theory and Practice, 25(4), 682–708.
Mueller, H. M., & Philippon, T. (2011). Family firms and labor relations. American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 3(2), 218–245.
Muñoz-Bullón, F., Sánchez-Bueno, M. J., & De Massis, A. (2020). Combining internal and external R & D: The effects on innovation performance in family and nonfamily firms. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 44(5), 996–1031.
Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. The Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 242–266.
Nordqvist, M., Habbershon, T. G., & Melin, L. (2008). Transgenerational entrepreneurship: Exploring entrepreneurial orientation in family firms. Entrepreneurship, sustainable growth and performance. Frontiers in European entrepreneurship research (pp. 93–116). Edward Elgar Publishing.
O’Boyle, E. H. J., Pollack, J. M., & Rutherford, M. W. (2012). Exploring the relationship between family involvement and firms’ finance performance: A meta-analysis of main and moderator effects. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(1), 1–18.
O’Brien, J. P.
(2003). The capital structure implications of pursuing a strategy of innovation. Strategic Management Journal
Patel, P. C., & Chrisman, J. J. (2014). Risk abatement as a strategy for R&D investments in family firms. Strategic Management Journal, 35(4), 617–627.
Pittino, D., Chirico, F., Henssen, B., & Broekaert, W. (2020). Does increased generational involvement foster business growth? The moderating roles of family involvement in ownership and management. European Management Review, 17(3), 785–801.
Powell, G. N., & Eddleston, K. A. (2017). Family involvement in the firm, family-to-business support, and entrepreneurial outcomes: An exploration. Journal of Small Business Management, 55, 614–631.
Poza, E. J., Hanlon, S., & Kishida, R. (2004). Does the family business interaction factor represent a resource or a cost? Family Business Review, 17(2), 99–118.
Revilla, A. J., Perez-Luno, A., & Nieto, M. J. (2016). Does family involvement in management reduce the risk of business failure? The moderating role of entrepreneurial orientation. Family Business Review, 29(4), 365–379.
Rojo-Ramírez, A. A., & Martínez-Romero, M. J. (2018). Required and obtained equity returns in privately held businesses: The impact of family nature—evidence before and after the global economic crisis. Review of Managerial Science, 12(3), 771–801.
Sacristan-Navarro, M., Gomez-Anson, S., & Cabeza-Garcia, L. (2011). Family ownership and control, the presence of other large shareholders, and firm performance: further evidence. Family Business Review, 24(1), 71–93.
Sánchez-Marín, G., Pemartín, M., & Monreal-Pérez, J. (2020). The influence of family involvement and generational stage on learning—by—exporting among family firms. Review of Managerial Science, 14(1), 311–334.
Saridakis, G., Lai, Y., Muñoz Torres, R. I., & Mohammed, A. M. (2018). Actual and intended growth in family firms and non-family owned firm: are they different? Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 5(1), 2–21.
Shepherd, D., & Wiklund, J. (2009). Are we comparing apples with apples or apples with oranges? Appropriateness of knowledge accumulation across growth studies. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(1), 105–123.
Sisodiya, S. R., Johnson, J. L., & Grégoire, Y. (2013). Inbound open innovation for enhanced performance: Enablers and opportunities. Industrial Marketing Management, 42(5), 836–849.
Stenholm, P., Pukkinen, T., & Heinonen, J. (2016). Firm Growth in Family Businesses-The Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation and the Entrepreneurial Activity. Journal of Small Business Management, 54(2), 697–713.
Sun, X., Lee, S.-H., & Phan, P. H. (2018). Family firm R&D investments in the 2007–2009 great recession. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 10(4), 100244.
Swab, R. G., Sherlock, C., Markin, E., & Dibrell, C. (2020). “SEW” what do we know and where do we go? A review of socioemotional wealth and a way forward. Family Business Review, 33(4), 424–445.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (1996). Using multivariate statistics. (H. Collins. & Taguiri, Eds.) (3rd ed.). New York.
Vanacker, T., Collewaert, V., & Zahra, S. A. (2016). Slack resources, firm performance, and the institutional context: Evidence from privately held European firms. Strategic Management Journal, 38(6), 1305–1326.
Vandekerkhof, P., Steijvers, T., Hendriks, W., & Voordeckers, W. (2015). The effect of organizational characteristics on the appointment of nonfamily managers in private family firms: the moderating role of socioemotional wealth. Family Business Review, 28(2), 104–122.
Vandekerkhof, P., Steijvers, T., Hendriks, W., & Voordeckers, W. (2018). Socio-emotional wealth separation and decision-making quality in family firm TMTs: the moderating role of psychological safety. Journal of Management Studies, 55(4), 648–676.
Vardaman, J. M., & Gondo, M. B. (2014). Socioemotional wealth conflict in family firms. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(6), 1317–1322.
Westhead, P., & Cowling, M. M. (1998). Family firm research: The need for a methodological rethink. Entrepreneurhip Theory and Practice, 23(1), 31–33.
Wiklund, J., Davidsson, P., & Delmar, F. (2003). What do they think and feel about growth? An expectancy-value approach to small business managers’ attitudes toward growth. Entrepreneurhip Theory and Practice, 27(3), 63–86.
Winzimmer, L., Nystrom, P. C., & Freeman, S. J. (1998). Measuring organizational growth: Issues, consequences and guidelines. Journal of Management, 24, 235–262.
Wiseman, R. M., & Gómez-Mejía, L. R. (1998). A behavioral agency model of managerial risk taking. Academy of Manangement Review, 23(1), 133–153.
Zellweger, T. (2007). Time horizon, cost of equity capital, and generic investment strategies of firms. Family Business Review, 20(1), 1–15.
Zellweger, T. M. (2017). Managing the family business. Theory and practice. Edward Elgar.