Skip to main content
Log in

Effect of climate change on the flooding of storm water networks under extreme rainfall events using SWMM simulations: a case study

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Urban areas are becoming more susceptible to severe storms, flash floods, and drainage system failures due to climate change, population growth, and urbanization. Flood modeling is a useful method for managing storm water drainage networks, predicting behavior, and evaluating effective solutions to structural and operational problems. This research describes the application of the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of the rainwater network, identify flood-prone locations, and determine the extent of floods in the center of Kerbala Governorate, Iraq. Saif Saad neighborhood was chosen as a case study. The model's validity was confirmed using the occurrence of actual rainfall by the coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.8952), normalized mean square error (NMSE = 0.0964), and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE = 0.7152), and the model's performance was reasonably good. Simulation results indicated that the system works well under near-term rainfall events, except for some sites that require maintenance and the diversion of surplus water to nearby green spaces. Over time, in periods of medium and far future until the year 2100, the system showed an increase in manhole floods, exceeding 0.1 m3/s. The percentage of flooding in manholes was more than 13% in the worst case, and continued floods for longer periods could potentially negatively affect the current drainage infrastructure. The study provides technical support for decision-makers to address these issues. By providing a comprehensive view of flood-prone areas and sites, as well as the flood percentage for each under different climate change scenarios, with the help of the Geographic Information System (GIS) software to represent future rain events. It suggests increasing the depth of manholes most vulnerable (especially R18, R98, and R101A manholes) to flooding and correcting slopes to achieve sustainability and a good service rate for the storm drainage system.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

All data used in this work are available from the corresponding author on request.

Code availability

The codes used in this work are available from the corresponding author on request.

References

  • Abd-Elhamid HF, Zeleňáková M, Vranayová Z, Fathy I (2020) Evaluating the impact of urban growth on the design of storm water drainage systems. Water 12(6):1572

    Google Scholar 

  • Abduljaleel Y, Demissie Y (2021) Evaluation and optimization of low impact development designs for sustainable stormwater management in a changing climate. Water 13(20):2889

    Google Scholar 

  • Abdullah-Al-Masum M, Islam MN, Shakif SH, Kobi SH (2021) Modelling of urban storm water runoff using SWMM. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, Islamic University of Technology (IUT), Board Bazar

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahiablame LM, Engel BA, Chaubey I (2012) Effectiveness of low impact development practices: literature review and suggestions for future research. Water Air Soil Pollut 223:4253–4273

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Akhter F, Hewa GA, Ahammed F, Myers B, Argue JR (2020) Performance evaluation of stormwater management systems and its impact on development costing. Water 12(2):375

    Google Scholar 

  • Andimuthu R, Kandasamy P, Mudgal B, Jeganathan A, Balu A, Sankar G (2019) Performance of urban storm drainage network under changing climate scenarios: flood mitigation in Indian coastal city. Sci Rep 9(1):7783

    Google Scholar 

  • Anni AH, Cohen S, Praskievicz S (2020) Sensitivity of urban flood simulations to stormwater infrastructure and soil infiltration. J Hydrol 588:125028

    Google Scholar 

  • Arnbjerg-Nielsen K, Willems P, Olsson J, Beecham S, Pathirana A, Bülow Gregersen I, Madsen H, Nguyen V-T-V (2013) Impacts of climate change on rainfall extremes and urban drainage systems: a review. Water Sci Technol 68(1):16–28

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Babaei S, Ghazavi R, Erfanian M (2018) Urban flood simulation and prioritization of critical urban sub-catchments using SWMM model and PROMETHEE II approach. Phys Chem Earth, Parts A/B/C 105:3–11

    Google Scholar 

  • Bellal M, Sillen X, Zech Y (1996) Coupling GIS with a distributed hydrological model for studying the effect of various urban planning options on rainfall-runoff relationship in urbanized watersheds. IAHS Publ-Ser Proc Rep-Intern Assoc Hydrol Sci 235:99–106

    Google Scholar 

  • Bizier P (2007) Gravity sanitary sewer design and construction. In: Water environment foundation (WEF), American society of civil engineers (ASCE) book series

    Google Scholar 

  • Black AR, Burns JC (2002) Re-assessing the flood risk in Scotland. Sci Total Environ 294(1–3):169–184

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Blanc J, Hall J, Roche N, Dawson R, Cesses Y, Burton A, Kilsby C (2012) Enhanced efficiency of pluvial flood risk estimation in urban areas using spatial–temporal rainfall simulations. J Flood Risk Manag 5(2):143–152

    Google Scholar 

  • Browne S, Lintern A, Jamali B, Leitão JP, Bach PM (2021) Stormwater management impacts of small urbanising towns: the necessity of investigating the ‘devil in the detail.’ Sci Total Environ 757:143835

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Burns MJ, Fletcher TD, Walsh CJ, Ladson AR, Hatt BE (2012) Hydrologic shortcomings of conventional urban stormwater management and opportunities for reform. Landsc Urban Plan 105(3):230–240

    Google Scholar 

  • Chang H-K, Tan Y-C, Lai J-S, Pan T-Y, Liu T-M, Tung C-P (2013) Improvement of a drainage system for flood management with assessment of the potential effects of climate change. Hydrol Sci J 58(8):1581–1597

    Google Scholar 

  • Cooper RT (2019) Projection of future precipitation extremes across the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. Heliyon 5(5):e01678

    Google Scholar 

  • Dong G, Yang Z, Yu Y (2013) Research progress on effects of variations of underlying surface on runoff yield and concentration in the river basin. South-to-North Water Transfers Water Sci Technol 11:111–117

    Google Scholar 

  • Dongquan Z, Jining C, Haozheng W, Qingyuan T, Shangbing C, Zheng S (2009) GIS-based urban rainfall-runoff modeling using an automatic catchment-discretization approach: a case study in Macau. Environ Earth Sci 59:465–472

    Google Scholar 

  • Durrans SR, Dietrich K, Ahmad M, Barnard T, Hjorth P, Pitt R (2003) Stormwater conveyance modeling and design, vol 1. Haestad press, Waterbury, CT

    Google Scholar 

  • Engineers W-M, Wright KR (1969) Urban storm drainage criteria manual. Wright-McLaughlin Engineers

    Google Scholar 

  • Faisal AA, Taha DS, Hassan WH, Lakhera SK, Ansar S, Pradhan S (2023) Subsurface flow constructed wetlands for treating of simulated cadmium ions-wastewater with presence of Canna indica and Typha domingensis. Chemosphere 338:139469

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Farhan SL, Abdelmonem MG, Nasar ZA (2018) The urban transformation of traditional city centres: Holy Karbala as a case study. ArchNet-IJAR: Int J Archit Res 12(3):53

    Google Scholar 

  • Faris AM, Nile BK, Mussa ZH, Alesary HF, Al Juboury MF, Hassan WH, ... Barton S (2022) Fate and emission of methyl mercaptan in a full-scale MBBR process by TOXCHEM simulation. J Water Clim Change 13(6):2386–2398

  • Fattah MY, Hassan WH, Rasheed SE (2018) Effect of geocell reinforcement above buried pipes on surface settlement. Int Rev Civil Eng 9(2):86–90

    Google Scholar 

  • Galiatsatou P, Iliadis C (2022) Intensity-duration-frequency curves at ungauged sites in a changing climate for sustainable stormwater networks. Sustainability 14(3):1229

    Google Scholar 

  • Galloway GE, Reilly A, Ryoo S, Riley A, Haslam M, Brody S, Highfield W, Gunn J, Rainey J, Parker S (2018) The growing threat of urban flooding: a national challenge. University of Maryland and Texas A&M University, College Park and Galveston

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaudio R, Penna N, Viteritti V (2016) A combined methodology for the hydraulic rehabilitation of urban drainage networks. Urban Water J 13(6):644–656

    Google Scholar 

  • GebreEgziabher M, Demissie Y (2020) Modeling urban flood inundation and recession impacted by manholes. Water 12(4):1160

    Google Scholar 

  • Gumbo B, Munyamba N, Sithole G, Savenije HH (2002) Coupling of digital elevation model and rainfall-runoff model in storm drainage network design. Phys Chem Earth, Parts A/B/C 27(11–22):755–764

    Google Scholar 

  • Hassan WH (2021) Climate change projections of maximum temperatures for southwest Iraq using statistical downscaling. Clim Res 83:187–200

    Google Scholar 

  • Hassan WH, Hashim FS (2021) Studying the impact of climate change on the average temperature using CanESM2 and HadCM3 modelling in Iraq. Int J Glob Warming 24(2):131–148

    Google Scholar 

  • Hassan WH, Hashim FS (2020) The effect of climate change on the maximum temperature in Southwest Iraq using HadCM3 and CanESM2 modelling. SN Appl Sci 2(9):1494

    Google Scholar 

  • Hassan WH, Hussein H, Nile BK (2022) The effect of climate change on groundwater recharge in unconfined aquifers in the western desert of Iraq. Groundw Sustain Dev 16:100700

    Google Scholar 

  • Hassan WH, Khalaf RM (2020) Optimum groundwater use management models by genetic algorithms in Karbala Desert, Iraq. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 928(2):022141

  • Hassan WH, Nile BK, Kadhim ZK, Mahdi K, Riksen M, Thiab RF (2023) Trends, forecasting and adaptation strategies of climate change in the middle and west regions of Iraq. SN Appl Sci 5(12):312

    Google Scholar 

  • Hassan WH, Nile BK (2021) Climate change and predicting future temperature in Iraq using CanESM2 and HadCM3 modeling. Model Earth Syst Env 7:737–748

  • Hassan WH, Nile BK, Mahdi K, Wesseling J, Ritsema C (2021) A feasibility assessment of potential artificial recharge for increasing agricultural areas in the kerbala desert in iraq using numerical groundwater modeling. Water 13(22):3167

    Google Scholar 

  • Hassan WH, Jalal HK (2021) Prediction of the depth of local scouring at a bridge pier using a gene expression programming method. SN Appl Sci 3(2):159

    Google Scholar 

  • Hassan WH, Attea ZH, Mohammed SS (2020) Optimum layout design of sewer networks by hybrid genetic algorithm. J Appl Water Eng Res 8(2):108–124

    Google Scholar 

  • Hovenga PA, Wang D, Medeiros SC, Hagen SC, Alizad K (2016) The response of runoff and sediment loading in the Apalachicola River, Florida to climate and land use land cover change. Earth’s Future 4(5):124–142

    Google Scholar 

  • Hu S-L, Han C-F, Meng L-P (2015) A scenario planning approach for propositioning rescue centers for urban waterlog disasters. Comput Ind Eng 87:425–435

    Google Scholar 

  • Hu S, Fan Y, Zhang T (2020) Assessing the effect of land use change on surface runoff in a rapidly urbanized city: a case study of the central area of Beijing. Land 9(1):17

    Google Scholar 

  • Huang H-j, Cheng S-j, Wen J-c, Lee J-h (2008) Effect of growing watershed imperviousness on hydrograph parameters and peak discharge. Hydrol Process: Int J 22(13):2075–2085

    Google Scholar 

  • Huang Q, Wang J, Li M, Fei M, Dong J (2017) Modeling the influence of urbanization on urban pluvial flooding: a scenario-based case study in Shanghai, China. Nat Hazards 87:1035–1055

    Google Scholar 

  • Huber WC (2003) Hydrologic modeling processes of the EPA storm water management model (SWMM). In: World water & environmental resources congress 2003, pp 1–10

    Google Scholar 

  • Hulley M, Watt E, Zukovs G (2008) Potential impacts of climate change on stormwater management. XCG Consultants Ltd. WaterTech2008 Conference, Lake Louise, Alberta

  • Hussain SN, Zwain HM, Nile BK (2022) Modeling the effects of land-use and climate change on the performance of stormwater sewer system using SWMM simulation: case study. J Water Clim Change 13(1):125–138

    Google Scholar 

  • Jalal HK, Hassan WH (2020) Effect of bridge pier shape on depth of scour. In IOP conference series: materials science and engineering, vol. 671, No. 1. IOP Publishing, pp 012001

  • James W, Rossman LA, James WRC (2010) User's guide to SWMM 5:[Based on original USEPA SWMM documentation]. CHI

  • Jawad AA, Hassan WH, Fattah MY (2021) Numerical analysis of a zoned earth dam considering hydrodynamic force during the earthquake excitation. J Phys: Conf Ser 1973(1): 012183. IOP Publishing

  • John EJ (1997) Introduction to hydraulics and hydrology with applications for stormwater management, 2nd edn. Delmar Thompson Learning

    Google Scholar 

  • Kanitkar S, Thube A, Sankhua RN (2016) Optimal design model for a fixed layout storm water network. Int J Water 10(4):375–391

    Google Scholar 

  • Khalaf RM, Hussein HH, Hassan WH, Mohammed ZM, Nile BK (2022) Projections of precipitation and temperature in Southern Iraq using a LARS-WG Stochastic weather generator. Phys Chem Earth, Parts A/B/C 128:103224

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan MMA, Shaari NAB, Bahar AMA, Baten MA, Nazaruddin DB (2014) Flood impact assessment in Kota Bharu, Malaysia: a statistical analysis. World Appl Sci J 32(4):626–634

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim J, Kang J (2023) Development of hazard capacity factor design model for net-zero: Evaluation of the flood adaptation effects considering green-gray infrastructure interaction. Sustain Cities Soc 96:104625

    Google Scholar 

  • Kiraz M (2018) Sustainable water and stormwater management for METU Campus. Master's thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara

    Google Scholar 

  • Konrad CP (2003) Effects of urban development on floods. In: US geological survey Tacoma. Fact sheet 076-03

    Google Scholar 

  • Koutsoyiannis D, Zarkadoulas N, Angelakis AN, Tchobanoglous G (2008) Urban water management in Ancient Greece: legacies and lessons. J Water Resour Plan Manag 134(1):45–54

    Google Scholar 

  • Kumar S, Agarwal A, Ganapathy A, Villuri VGK, Pasupuleti S, Kumar D, Sivakumar B (2022) Impact of climate change on stormwater drainage in urban areas. Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess 36:77–96

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuo C-C, Gan TY, Gizaw M (2015) Potential impact of climate change on intensity duration frequency curves of central Alberta. Clim Change 130:115–129

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lee JH, Bang KW (2000) Characterization of urban stormwater runoff. Water Res 34(6):1773–1780

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lee S, Nakagawa H, Kawaike K, Zhang H (2016) Urban inundation simulation considering road network and building configurations. J Flood Risk Manag 9(3):224–233

    Google Scholar 

  • Luo C, Li Z, Liu H, Li H, Wan R, Pan J, Chen X (2020) Differences in the responses of flow and nutrient load to isolated and coupled future climate and land use changes. J Environ Manage 256:109918

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Martínez C, Sanchez A, Galindo R, Mulugeta A, Vojinovic Z, Galvis A (2018) Configuring green infrastructure for urban runoff and pollutant reduction using an optimal number of units. Water 10(11):1528

    Google Scholar 

  • Masaki Y, Hanasaki N, Takahashi K, Hijioka Y (2014) Global-scale analysis on future changes in flow regimes using Gini and Lorenz asymmetry coefficients. Water Resour Res 50(5):4054–4078

    Google Scholar 

  • McCuen RH, Johnson PA, Ragan RM (1996) Highway hydrology: Hydraulic design series No. 2 (No. FHWA-SA-96-067)

  • McGhee TJ, Steel EW (1991) Water supply and sewerage, vol 6. McGraw-Hill, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Mishra BK, Chakraborty S, Kumar P, Saraswat C (2020) Sustainable solutions for urban water security, vol 93. Springer, UK

    Google Scholar 

  • Moghadas S, Leonhardt G, Marsalek J, Viklander M (2018) Modeling urban runoff from rain-on-snow events with the US EPA SWMM model for current and future climate scenarios. J Cold Reg Eng 32(1):04017021

    Google Scholar 

  • Moglen GE, Rios Vidal GE (2014) Climate change and storm water infrastructure in the mid-Atlantic region: design mismatch coming? J Hydrol Eng 19(11):04014026

    Google Scholar 

  • Mohammed MH, Zwain HM, Hassan WH (2021) Modeling the impacts of climate change and flooding on sanitary sewage system using SWMM simulation: a case study. Results Eng 12:100307

    Google Scholar 

  • Mohammed MH, Zwain HM, Hassan WH (2022) Modeling the quality of sewage during the leaking of stormwater surface runoff to the sanitary sewer system using SWMM: a case study. AQUA—Water Infrastruct, Ecosyst Soc 71(1):86–99

    Google Scholar 

  • Mohammed SR, Nile BK, Hassan WH (2020) Modelling stilling basins for sewage networks. In IOP conference series: materials science and engineering, vol. 671, No. 1. IOP Publishing, pp 012111

  • Mohammed ZM, Hassan WH (2022) Climate change and the projection of future temperature and precipitation in southern Iraq using a LARS-WG model. Model Earth Syst Environ 8(3):4205–4218

    Google Scholar 

  • Mohsen KA, Nile BK, Hassan WH (2020) Experimental work on improving the efficiency of storm networks using a new galley design filter bucket. In IOP conference series: materials science and engineering vol. 671, No. 1. IOP Publishing, pp 012111

  • Nile BK (2018) Effectiveness of hydraulic and hydrologic parameters in assessing storm system flooding. Adv Civ Eng 2018:4639172

  • Nile BK, Hassan WH, Esmaeel BA (2018) An evaluation of flood mitigation using a storm water management model [SWMM] in a residential area in Kerbala, Iraq. In IOP conference series: materials science and engineering vol. 433, No. 1. IOP Publishing, pp 012001

  • Nile BK, Hassan WH, Alshama GA (2019) Analysis of the effect of climate change on rainfall intensity and expected flooding by using ANN and SWMM programs. ARPN J Eng Appl Sci 14(5):974–984

    Google Scholar 

  • Mugume SN, Butler D (2017) Evaluation of functional resilience in urban drainage and flood management systems using a global analysis approach. Urban Water J 14(7):727–736

    Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen HQ, Radhakrishnan M, Bui TKN, Tran DD, Ho LP, Tong VT, Huynh LTP, Chau NXQ, Ngo TTT, Pathirana A (2019) Evaluation of retrofitting responses to urban flood risk in Ho Chi Minh City using the Motivation and Ability (MOTA) framework. Sustain Cities Soc 47:101465

    Google Scholar 

  • Niazi M, Nietch C, Maghrebi M, Jackson N, Bennett BR, Tryby M, Massoudieh A (2017) Storm water management model: Performance review and gap analysis. J Sustain Water Built Environ 3(2):04017002

    Google Scholar 

  • Nirupama N, Simonovic SP (2007) Increase of flood risk due to urbanisation: a Canadian example. Nat Hazards 40:25–41

    Google Scholar 

  • Noor M, Ismail T, Chung E-S, Shahid S, Sung JH (2018) Uncertainty in rainfall intensity duration frequency curves of peninsular Malaysia under changing climate scenarios. Water 10(12):1750

    Google Scholar 

  • Obaid HA (2015) Modelling sewer overflow of Karbala City with large floating population Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

  • Olsson J, Berggren K, Olofsson M, Viklander M (2009) Applying climate model precipitation scenarios for urban hydrological assessment: A case study in Kalmar City, Sweden. Atmos Res 92(3):364–375

    Google Scholar 

  • Oreskes N, Shrader-Frechette K, Belitz K (1994) Verification, validation, and confirmation of numerical models in the earth sciences. Science 263(5147):641–646

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pachauri RK, Allen MR, Barros VR, Broome J, Cramer W, Christ R, van Ypserle JP (2014) Climate change 2014: synthesis report. In: Contribution of working groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. IPCC, p 151

  • Paule-Mercado MCA, Lee C-H (2017) Calibration of the SWMM for a mixed land use and land cover catchment in Yongin, South Korea. Desalin Water Treat 63:381–388

    Google Scholar 

  • Peterson EW, Wicks CM (2006) Assessing the importance of conduit geometry and physical parameters in karst systems using the storm water management model (SWMM). J Hydrol 329(1–2):294–305

    Google Scholar 

  • Phillips BC, Yu S, Thompson GR, De Silva N (2005) 1D and 2D modelling of urban drainage systems using XP-SWMM and TUFLOW. In: 10th international conference on urban drainage, Copenhagen, pp 21–26

  • Pittman JJ (2011) Urban hydrology modeling with EPA's stormwater management model (SWMM) and analysis of water quality in a newly constructed stormwater wetland. Doctoral dissertation, Villanova University

  • Poudel B (2023) Development of intensity duration frequency curve of the lower Rio Grande Valley. Doctoral dissertation, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

  • Pour SH, Abd Wahab AK, Shahid S, Asaduzzaman M, Dewan A (2020) Low impact development techniques to mitigate the impacts of climate-change-induced urban floods: current trends, issues and challenges. Sustain Cities Soc 62:102373

    Google Scholar 

  • Rabori AM, Ghazavi R (2018) Urban flood estimation and evaluation of the performance of an urban drainage system in a semi-arid urban area using SWMM. Water Environ Res 90(12):2075–2082

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rawls WJ, Brakensiek DL, Soni B (1983a) Agricultural management effects on soil water processes part I: Soil water retention and Green and Ampt infiltration parameters. Trans ASAE 26(6):1747–1752

  • Rawls WJ, Brakensiek DL, Miller N (1983b) Green-Ampt infiltration parameters from soils data. J Hydraul Eng 109(1):62–70

  • Rossman L, Simon M (2022) Storm water management model user’s manual version 5.2. United States Environ Prot Agency 1–353

  • Rossman LA (2015) Storm water management model user’s manual version 5.1. National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, p 353

  • Rossman LA, Huber WC (2016a) Storm water management model reference manual volume I–hydrology, vol 3. US Environmental Protection Agency

  • Rossman LA, Huber WC (2016b) Storm water management model reference manual volume III–water quality. US EPA Office of Research and Development. Washington, DC

  • Rossman LA, Supply W (2006) Storm water management model, quality assurance report: dynamic wave flow routing. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Research Management Research Laboratory, p 115

  • Salimi M, Al-Ghamdi S (2019) Climate change impacts on critical urban infrastructure and urban resiliency strategies for the Middle East. Sustain Cities Soc 54:101948

    Google Scholar 

  • Saraswat C, Kumar P, Mishra BK (2016) Assessment of stormwater runoff management practices and governance under climate change and urbanization: An analysis of Bangkok, Hanoi and Tokyo. Environ Sci Policy 64:101–117

    Google Scholar 

  • Schwartz D, Sample DJ, Grizzard TJ (2017) Evaluating the performance of a retrofitted stormwater wet pond for treatment of urban runoff. Environ Monit Assess 189:1–19

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shah SMH, Mustaffa Z, Yusof KW (2017) Disasters worldwide and floods in the Malaysian Region: a brief review. Indian J Sci Technol 10(2):1–9

    Google Scholar 

  • Shahid S, Wang X-J, Harun SB, Shamsudin SB, Ismail T, Minhans A (2016) Climate variability and changes in the major cities of Bangladesh: observations, possible impacts and adaptation. Reg Environ Change 16:459–471

    Google Scholar 

  • Sheng J, Wilson JP (2009) Watershed urbanization and changing flood behavior across the Los Angeles metropolitan region. Nat Hazards 48:41–57

    Google Scholar 

  • Smit B, Wandel J (2006) Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Glob Environ Chang 16(3):282–292

    Google Scholar 

  • Storteig IC (2019) Continuous urban hydrological modelling of discharge peaks with SWMM (Master's thesis)

  • Subramanya K (2008) Engineering hydrology. McGraw-Hill

    Google Scholar 

  • Sun X, Li R, Shan X, Xu H, Wang J (2021) Assessment of climate change impacts and urban flood management schemes in central Shanghai. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct 65:102563

    Google Scholar 

  • Temprano J, Arango Ó, Cagiao J, Suárez J, Tejero I (2006) Stormwater quality calibration by SWMM: a case study in Northern Spain. Water Sa 32(1):55–63

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Teng J, Jakeman AJ, Vaze J, Croke BF, Dutta D, Kim S (2017) Flood inundation modelling: A review of methods, recent advances and uncertainty analysis. Environ Model Softw 90:201–216

    Google Scholar 

  • Tikkanen H (2013) Hydrological modeling of a large urban catchment using a stormwater management model (SWMM). (Master's thesis, Aalto University)

  • Timpson AJ (2012) Small watershed flood frequency analysis for Utah. The University of Utah

    Google Scholar 

  • Torabi E (2017) To be beside the seaside: urban resilience to climate-related disasters in Coastal Cities. Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi

    Google Scholar 

  • UDFCD (2016) Urban storm drainage criteria manual. In: Management, hydrology, and hydraulics. Urban drainage and flood control district (UDFCD), vol 1, Denver, Colorado

  • Venture RESJ, Authority AP (1984) Drainage structure and waterway design guidelines, p 157

  • Visitacion BJ, Booth DB, Steinemann AC (2009) Costs and benefits of storm-water management: case study of the Puget Sound region. J Urban Plann Dev 135(4):150–158

    Google Scholar 

  • Wan Mohtar WHM, Abdullah J, Abdul Maulud KN, Muhammad NS (2020) Urban flash flood index based on historical rainfall events. Sustain Cities Soc 56:102088

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang Y, Sun M, Song B (2017) Public perceptions of and willingness to pay for sponge city initiatives in China. Resour Conserv Recycl 122:11–20

    Google Scholar 

  • Water Environment Federation, & American Society of Civil Engineers (1992) Design and construction of urban stormwater management systems. In: ASCE manuals and reports of engineering practice no. 77. American Society of Civil Engineers and Water Environment Federation

  • Weber A (2019) What is urban flooding. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). https://www.nrdc.org/experts/anna-weber/what-urban-flooding

  • White E, Knighton J, Martens G, Plourde M, Rajan R (2013) Geoprocessing tools for surface and basement flooding analysis in SWMM. J Water Manag Model 21:33–35

    Google Scholar 

  • Willems P (2013) Revision of urban drainage design rules after assessment of climate change impacts on precipitation extremes at Uccle, Belgium. J Hydrol 496:166–177

    Google Scholar 

  • Wu J, Wu X, Zhang J (2019) Development trend and frontier of stormwater management (1980–2019): a bibliometric overview based on CiteSpace. Water 11(9):1908

    Google Scholar 

  • Xie X, Huo J, Zou H (2019) Green process innovation, green product innovation, and corporate financial performance: a content analysis method. J Bus Res 101:697–706

    Google Scholar 

  • Yan H, Fernandez A, Zhu DZ, Zhang W, Loewen MR, van Duin B, Chen L, Mahmood K, Zhao S, Jia H (2022) Land cover-based simulation of urban stormwater runoff and pollutant loading. J Environ Manage 303:114147

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yazdanfar Z, Sharma A (2015) Urban drainage system planning and design–challenges with climate change and urbanization: a review. Water Sci Technol 72(2):165–179

    Google Scholar 

  • Yergeau SE (2010) Development and application of a coupled SWMM-MODFLOW model for an urban wetland. Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, School of Graduate Studies

    Google Scholar 

  • Zahmatkesh Z, Karamouz M, Goharian E, Burian SJ (2015) Analysis of the effects of climate change on urban storm water runoff using statistically downscaled precipitation data and a change factor approach. J Hydrol Eng 20(7):05014022

    Google Scholar 

  • Zakizadeh F, Moghaddam Nia A, Salajegheh A, Sañudo-Fontaneda LA, Alamdari N (2022) Efficient urban runoff quantity and quality modelling using SWMM model and field data in an urban watershed of Tehran Metropolis. Sustainability 14(3):1086

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhou Q, Leng G, Su J, Ren Y (2019) Comparison of urbanization and climate change impacts on urban flood volumes: Importance of urban planning and drainage adaptation. Sci Total Environ 658:24–33

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zoppou C (2001) Review of urban storm water models. Environ Model Softw 16(3):195–231

    Google Scholar 

  • Zwain HM, Nile BK, Faris AM, Vakili M, Dahlan I (2020) Modelling of hydrogen sulfide fate and emissions in extended aeration sewage treatment plant using TOXCHEM simulations. Sci Rep 10(1):22209

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

No funding was received for this study.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Conceptualization: W.H.H and Z.K.K.; Methodology; Formal analysis and investigation; Writing—original draft preparation: Z.K.K; Writing—original draft preparation: W.H.H, and B.K.N; Writing—review and editing: W.H.H and B.K.N; Supervision.

W. H. H. (Professor), Supply data and help doing code program as well as revised and editing the final manuscript.

Z. K. K. (M.Sc.), visualized the manuscript and conducted the research and investigation process and wrote the original draft.

B. K. N. (Professor), Supervised to the work as well as editing the final version of manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Waqed H. Hassan.

Ethics declarations

Ethical approval

Not applicable.

Consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hassan, W.H., Nile, B.K. & Kadhim, Z.K. Effect of climate change on the flooding of storm water networks under extreme rainfall events using SWMM simulations: a case study. Model. Earth Syst. Environ. 10, 4129–4161 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40808-024-01998-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40808-024-01998-1

Keywords

Navigation