Identification of the trend in precipitation and temperature over the Kabul River sub-basin: a case study of Afghanistan

  • Taha AawarEmail author
  • Deepak Khare
  • Lakhwinder Singh
Original Article


Precipitation and temperature are the two important factors which have more influence and role in climate change as well as hydrology cycle; therefore in this research, the fluctuating trends of rainfall and temperature of the Kabul River basin, Afghanistan, at eight different stations are analyzed. The annual and monthly data were used to detect the trends of precipitation, whereas for temperature trend the maximum and minimum annual data were used. Precipitation data from 2000 to 2018 for eight different metrological stations of the Kabul River basin were analyzed to find the changes in rainfall trend, while for temperature data from the five available weather stations for a period from 2008 to 2018 were used. Temporal precipitation and temperature variation were calculated on monthly and annual intervals. Mann–Kendall and Sen’s slope method was used for the trend analysis, which supports nonparametric statistical analysis. The trend of annual precipitation was calculated over 18 years for all stations. After trend analysis of precipitation with Mann–Kendall test and Sen’s slope, the result showed the increasing precipitation trend of 4.88–30.42 mm/year, as well as the minimum temperatures have increased significantly at a different rate of (−0.02) to (0.71) °C/year. The outcome of the present study may be useful for the water managers to understand the impact of climate change in a sub-basin of Kabul River basin, Afghanistan.


Precepitation trend Mann Kendall test Sens slope estimator 



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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

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