Modeling Earth Systems and Environment

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 729–752 | Cite as

Assessment of landfills vulnerability on the groundwater quality located near floodplain of the perennial river and simulation of contaminant transport

  • Sunil Kumar SrivastavaEmail author
  • AL Ramanathan
Original Article


This investigation was carried out with the objective to understand the impacts of landfill leachate on groundwater quality. This study also explained the movement of trace metals in groundwater by using Visual MODFLOW/MT3D. It also delineates the various factors controlling the suitability of groundwater for domestic, agriculture and drinking purpose. The statistical assessment shows ~ 60.09% groundwater are in good condition, ~ 35.38% in poor condition and 4.53% in very poor condition. The spatial distributions of water quality index (LWQI) around landfills indicate landfills are in depleted condition. Hydrogeochemical classification indicates ~ 90.91% groundwater shows Ca–Na water-type cation facies and Cl water-type anion facies. While 9.09% groundwater shows Ca–Na water-type cation facies and Cl–SO42−–HCO3 anion hydrogeochemical facies. The mineral equilibrium diagram of groundwater has revealed that it is in equilibrium with silicate minerals and favors kaolinite formation. The saturation index indicates chrysotile (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) (2.84), dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) (0.45), ferric hydroxide (Fe(OH)3) (1.97–3.58), goethite (FeOOH) (7.86–9.47), hematite (Fe2O3) (17.73–20.95), hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH) (2.38–4.62), jarosite-K (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) (0.22–1.92), cerussite (PbCO3) (0.39), vivianite (Fe3(PO4)2·8H2O) (0.39) and willemite (Zn2SiO4) (0.35) are reactive mineral in groundwater aquifer of study area. The seasonal and temporal variation indicates anthropogenic influence. The calibration and validation of model show > 90% models correct with 95% confidence. The contaminant transport simulated in groundwater aquifer with the high accuracy (estimated standard error 0.049 m) for the large area (~ 300 km2). The trends of contour lines of trace metals concentration indicate; it will contaminate study area within few years of its release through the landfill.


Groundwater modeling Landfill LWQI Contaminant transport Chemical speciation 



The corresponding author would like to thanks, UGC/CSIR for funding Junior Research Fellowship (JRF), which helped him to complete his research work efficiently in Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi, India. We would like to thanks, Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), Survey of India (SOI), Central Groundwater Board and Authority (CGWB and CGWA) and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) for providing valuable information regarding research work. We would like to thanks, Dr. Roger Herbert, Assoc. Prof., Uppsala University, Sweden for helping in learning of application of software and interpreting the hydro-geochemical data. Thanks to all.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry/Chemical EngineeringJaypee University of Engineering and TechnologyGunaIndia
  2. 2.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru University (JNU)New DelhiIndia

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