Statistical optimization of adsorption process for removal of synthetic dye using watermelon rinds

  • Mohd Azmier Ahmad
  • Norhidayah Ahmad
  • Olugbenga Solomon Bello
Original Article


Adsorption of Remazol Brilliant Blue Reactive (RBBR) dye was investigated using chemically prepared watermelon rind activated carbon (WRAC). WRAC was characterized using BET surface area, FTIR, SEM and proximate analysis techniques respectively. Response surface methodology (RSM) statistical technique was used to optimize the preparation conditions which are activation temperature, activation time and chemical impregnation ratio (IR); with percentage RBBR dye removal and WRAC yield as the targeted responses. Based on the central composite design (CCD), two empirical models were developed and validated by applying ANOVA analysis incorporating interaction effects of three variables using RSM to the two responses. The optimum conditions for preparing WRAC for adsorption of RBBR dye were found as follows: activation temperature of 820 °C, activation time of 2.05 h and IR of 2.85, which resulted in 91.82% of RBBR dye removal and 32.09% of WRAC yield. Experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily well with the model predictions. WRAC prepared under optimum conditions was mesoporous with BET surface area of 776.65 m2/g, total pore volume of 0.438 cm3/g and average pore diameter of 3.74 nm.


Watermelon rind Remazol brilliant blue reactive dye Variables Responses 



The financial support in form of grants from USM under Iconic grant scheme (Grant no. 1001/CKT/870023) for research associated with the Solid Waste Management Cluster, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, the three months USM-TWAS Visiting Researcher Fellowship, FR number: 3240268492 awarded to the corresponding author and the accumulated leave granted to Dr. O.S Bello by his home institution to utilize the fellowship are thankfully recognized.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohd Azmier Ahmad
    • 1
    • 2
  • Norhidayah Ahmad
    • 1
    • 2
  • Olugbenga Solomon Bello
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering CampusUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia
  2. 2.Solid Waste Management Cluster, Science and Engineering Research Centre, Engineering CampusUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Pure and Applied ChemistryLadoke Akintola University of TechnologyOgbomosoNigeria

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