Advertisement

The Status Competition Model of Cultural Production

  • Bo Winegard
  • Ben Winegard
  • David C. Geary
Theoretical Article

Abstract

Humans create many apparently functionless artifacts such as paintings, novels, poems, films, and decorative blankets. From an evolutionary perspective, such creations appear somewhat puzzling. Why create artifacts that do not appear to contribute to survival? One recent explanation, the cultural courtship model, argued that such creations are used to signal genetic health to the other sex. In this way, cultural creators are potentially rewarded with higher quality mates. We propose an alternative (but not completely contradictory) model, the status competition model of cultural production, which argues that cultural displays often, but not exclusively, signal the possession of important cultural competencies to others in a coalition. Cultural creators are recompensed with prestige, which they can use to secure mates or invest in their kin and lineage. We examine evidence for and against these models and conclude that the status competition model can better explain cultural production than current theory.

Keywords

Sexual selection Mate choice Prestige Signaling 

References

  1. Addison, W. E. (1989). Beardedness as a factor in perceived masculinity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 68, 921–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal, A. F., & Whitlock, M. C. (2012). Mutation load: the fitness of individuals in populations where deleterious alleles are abundant. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 43, 115–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aiello, L. C., & Wheeler, P. (1995). The expensive-tissue hypothesis: the brain and the digestive system in human and primate evolution. Current Anthropology, 36, 199–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander, R. D. (1974). The evolution of social behavior. Annual review of ecology and systematics, 5, 325–383.Google Scholar
  5. Alexander, R. D. (1990). How did humans evolve? Reflections on the uniquely unique species. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, E. (2000). Code of the street: decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York: WW Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, C., & Kennedy, J. A. (2012). Micropolitics: a new model of status hierarchies in teams. Research on Managing Groups and Teams, 15, 49–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson, C., & Kilduff, G. J. (2009). The pursuit of status in social groups. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 295–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Apostolou, M. (2007). Sexual selection under parental choice: the role of parents in the evolution of human mating. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 403–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Apostolou, M. (2010). Sexual selection under parental choice: evidence from sixteen historical societies. Evolutionary Psychology, 10, 504–518.Google Scholar
  11. Apostolou, M. (2017). Individual mate choice in an arranged marriage context: evidence from the standard cross-cultural sample. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 3, 193–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Asfaw, B., White, T., Lovejoy, O., Latimer, B., Simpson, S., & Suwa, G. (1999). Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. Science, 284, 629–635.Google Scholar
  13. Baker Jr., M. D., & Maner, J. K. (2008). Risk-taking as a situationally sensitive male mating strategy. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 391–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Banks, G. C., Batchelor, J. H., & McDaniel, M. A. (2010). Smarter people are (a bit) more symmetrical: a meta-analysis of the relationship between intelligence and fluctuating asymmetry. Intelligence, 38, 393–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barnes, C. D., Brown, R. P., & Osterman, L. L. (2012a). Don’t tread on me: masculine honor ideology in the US and militant responses to terrorism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1018–1029.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barnes, C. D., Brown, R. P., & Tamborski, M. (2012b). Living dangerously: culture of honor, risk-taking, and the nonrandomness of “accidental” deaths. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 100–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baron-Cohen, S., Richler, J., Bisarya, D., Gurunathan, N., & Wheelwright, S. (2003). The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high–functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 358, 361–374.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Baumeister, R. F. (2005). The cultural animal: human nature, meaning, and social life. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Baumeister, R. F. (2010). Is there anything good about men? How cultures flourish by exploiting men. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Beckwith, C. (1983). Niger’s Wodaabe: people of the taboo. National Geographic, 164, 483–509.Google Scholar
  21. Benenson, J. F. (2014). Warriors and worriers: the survival of the sexes. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Bereczkei, T., Birkas, B., & Kerekes, Z. (2007). Public charity offer as a proximate factor of evolved reputation-building strategy: an experimental analysis of a real-life situation. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 277–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Berreby, D. (2005). Us and them: understanding your tribal mind. New York: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  24. Bingham, P. M. (1999). Human uniqueness: a general theory. QUARTERLY REVIEW OF BIOLOGY, 74, 133–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bogin, B. (1999). Evolutionary perspective on human growth. Annual Review of Anthropology, 28, 109–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Buss, D. M. (2008). Evolutionary psychology: the new science of the mind (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Google Scholar
  27. Buss, D. M., & Schmitt, D. P. (1993). Sexual strategies theory: an evolutionary perspective on human mating. Psychological Review, 100, 204–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cant, J. G. (1981). Hypothesis for the evolution of human breasts and buttocks. American Naturalist, 117, 199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carney, D. R., Jost, J. T., Gosling, S. D., & Potter, J. (2008). The secret lives of liberals and conservatives: personality profiles, interaction styles, and the things they leave behind. Political Psychology, 29, 807–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cash, T. F., Dawson, K., Davis, P., Bowen, M., & Galumbeck, C. (1989). Effects of cosmetics use on the physical attractiveness and body image of American college women. The Journal of Social Psychology, 129, 349–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cecil, E. (1895). Primogeniture: a short history of its development in various countries and its practical effects. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
  32. Chapais, B. (2008). Primeval kinship: how pair-bonding gave birth to human society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Chapais, B. (2013). Monogamy, strongly bonded groups, and the evolution of human social structure. Evolutionary Anthropology, 22, 52–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Darwin, C. R. (1871). The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. London: John Murray.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Darwin, C. (1958). On the origin of species by means of natural selection. New York: New American Library (Original work published 1859).Google Scholar
  36. Dastrup, S. R., Graff Zivin, J., Costa, D. L., & Kahn, M. E. (2012). Understanding the solar home price premium: electricity generation and “green” social status. European Economic Review, 56, 961–973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Davies, S. (2006). Aesthetic judgements, artworks and functional beauty. The Philosophical Quarterly, 56, 224–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Davis, N. W., & Duncan, M. C. (2006). Sports knowledge is power: reinforcing masculine privilege through fantasy sport league participation. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 30, 244–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Davis, K., & Moore, W. E. (1945). Some principles of stratification. American Sociological Review, 10, 242–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Deacon, T. W. (1997). The symbolic species: the co-evolution of language and the human brain. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  41. Deaner, R., & Smith, B. (2013). Sex differences in sports across 50 societies. Cross-Cultural Research, 47, 268–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Deaner, R. O., Geary, D. C., Puts, D. A., Ham, S. A., Kruger, J., Fles, E., Winegard, B., & Grandis, T. (2012). A sex difference in the predisposition for physical competition: males play sports much more than females even in the contemporary US. PLoS One, 7, e49168.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dissanayake, E. (1990). What is art for? Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  44. Dixson, B. J., & Vasey, P. L. (2012). Beards augment perceptions of men's age, social status, and aggressiveness, but not attractiveness. Behavioral Ecology, 23, 481–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dunn, M. J., & Hill, A. (2014). Manipulated luxury-apartment ownership enhances opposite-sex attraction in females but not males. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, 12, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dunn, M. J., & Searle, R. (2010). Effect of manipulated prestige-car ownership on both sex attractiveness ratings. British Journal of Psychology, 101, 69–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ellmann, R. (1966). James Joyce. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Elton, S., Bishop, L. C., & Wood, B. (2001). Comparative context of Plio-Pleistocene hominin brain evolution. Journal of Human Evolution, 41, 1–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Etcoff, N. L., Stock, S., Haley, L. E., Vickery, S. A., & House, D. M. (2011). Cosmetics as a feature of the extended human phenotype: modulation of the perception of biologically important facial signals. PLoS One, 6, e25656.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Falk, D., Redmond Jr., J. C., Guyer, J., Conroy, C., Recheis, W., Weber, G. W., & Seidler, H. (2000). Early hominid brain evolution: a new look at old endocasts. Journal of Human Evolution, 38, 695–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Farquhar, L. K., & Meeds, R. (2007). Types of fantasy sports users and their motivations. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, 1208–1228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Farrelly, D., & Nettle, D. (2007). Marriage affects competitive performance in male tennis players. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, 5, 141–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fisher, H. E. (1994). Anatomy of love: a natural history of mating, marriage, and why we stray. New York, NY: Random House.Google Scholar
  54. Flinn, M. V., Geary, D. C., & Ward, C. V. (2005). Ecological dominance, social competition, and coalitionary arms races: why humans evolved extraordinary intelligence. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26, 10–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Foley, R., & Lahr, M. M. (2003). On stony ground: lithic technology, human evolution, and the emergence of culture. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 12, 109–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Frankenhuis, W. E., Dotsch, R., Karremans, J. C., & Wigboldus, D. H. (2010). Male physical risk taking in a virtual environment. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, 8, 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Frederick, D. A., & Haselton, M. G. (2007). Why is muscularity sexy? Tests of the fitness indicator hypothesis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 1167–1183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gallup Jr., G. G., & Frederick, D. A. (2010). The science of sex appeal: an evolutionary perspective. Review of General Psychology, 14, 240–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Garland, R. (2008). Daily life of the Ancient Greeks. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.Google Scholar
  60. Geary, D. C. (2005). The origin of mind: evolution of brain, cognition, and general intelligence. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Geary, D. C. (2010). Male/female: the evolution of human sex differences (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Geary, D. C., & Flinn, M. V. (2001). Evolution of human parental behavior and the human family. Parenting, 1, 5–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gilmore, D. D. (1990). Manhood in the making. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Goldberg, S. (1999). Why men rule: a theory of male dominance. Chicago: Open Court.Google Scholar
  65. Griskevicius, V., Cialdini, R. B., & Kenrick, D. T. (2006). Peacocks, Picasso, and parental investment: the effects of romantic motives on creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 63–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Griskevicius, V., Tybur, J. M., Sundie, J. M., Cialdini, R. B., Miller, G. F., & Kenrick, D. T. (2007). Blatant benevolence and conspicuous consumption: when romantic motives elicit strategic costly signals. Journal of personality and social psychology, 93, 85–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Griskevicius, V., Tybur, J. M., & Van den Bergh, B. (2010). Going green to be seen: status, reputation, and conspicuous conservation. Journal of personality and social psychology, 98, 392–404.Google Scholar
  68. Guéguen, N., Meineri, S., & Fischer-Lokou, J. (2014). Men’s music ability and attractiveness to women in a real-life courtship context. Psychology of Music, 42, 545–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Guttman, A. (1986). Sports spectators. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Guttman, A. (2007). Sports: the first five millennia. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.Google Scholar
  71. Hardy, C. L., & Van Vugt, M. (2006). Nice guys finish first: the competitive altruism hypothesis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 1402–1413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Henrich, J., & Gil-White, F. J. (2001). The evolution of prestige: freely conferred deference as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission. Evolution and Human Behavior, 22, 165–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hill, K. R., Walker, R. S., Božičević, M., Eder, J., Headland, T., Hewlett, B., Hurtado, A. M., Marlow, F., Wiessner, P., & Wood, B. (2011). Co-residence patterns in hunter-gatherer societies show unique human social structure. Science, 331, 1286–1289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hodges-Simeon, C. R., Gaulin, S. J., & Puts, D. A. (2011). Voice correlates of mating success in men: examining “contests” versus “mate choice” modes of sexual selection. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40, 551–557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hoff Sommers, C. (1995). Who stole feminism? How women have betrayed women. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  76. Hofstede, G. (2003). What is culture? A reply to Baskerville. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 28, 811–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hooper, P. L., & Miller, G. F. (2008). Mutual mate choice can drive costly signaling even under perfect monogamy. Adaptive Behavior, 16, 53–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Howlett, N., Pine, K., Orakçioglu, I., & Fletcher, B. (2013). The influence of clothing on first impressions: rapid and positive responses to minor changes in male attire. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 17, 38–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hudders, L., De Backer, C., Fisher, M., & Vyncke, P. (2014). The rival wears Prada: luxury consumption as a female competition strategy. Evolutionary Psychology, 12, 570–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Humphrey, N. K. (1976). The social function of intellect. In P. Bateson & R. Hinde (Eds.), Growing points in ethology (pp. 303–317). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Irigaray, L. (1985). Speculum of the other woman. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Irons, W. (1979). Cultural and biological success. In N. A. Chagnon & W. Irons (Eds.), Natural selection and social behavior (pp. 257–272). North Scituate, MA: Duxbury Press.Google Scholar
  83. Jackson, T. T., & Gray, M. (1976). Field study of risk-taking behavior of automobile drivers. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 43, 471–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Jaeggi, A. V., Burkart, J. M., & Van Schaik, C. P. (2010). On the psychology of cooperation in humans and other primates: combining the natural history and experimental evidence of prosociality. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365, 2723–2735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. James, J. D. (2001). The role of cognitive development and socialization in the initial development of team ingroup loyalty. Leisure Sciences, 23, 233–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Jasieńska, G., Ziomkiewicz, A., Ellison, P. T., Lipson, S. F., & Thune, I. (2004). Large breasts and narrow waists indicate high reproductive potential in women. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 271, 1213–1217.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Jobling, M. A. (2001). In the name of the father: surnames and genetics. Trends in Genetics, 17, 353–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kanazawa, S. (2000). Scientific discoveries as cultural displays: a further test of Miller's courtship model. Evolution and Human Behavior, 21, 317–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kirchner, P. (2004). Dueling with the sword and pistol: 400 years of one-on-one combat. Boulder, Co: Paladin Press.Google Scholar
  90. Klein, R. (2009). The human career: human biological and cultural origins (3rd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kohn, M., & Mithen, S. (1999). Handaxes: products of sexual selection? Antiquity, 73, 518–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kroeber, A. L., & Parsons, T. (1958). The concepts of culture and of social system. American Sociological Review, 23, 582–583.Google Scholar
  93. Kuehn, M. (2001). Kant: a biography. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kyle, D. J., & Mahler, H. I. (1996). The effects of hair color and cosmetic use on perceptions of a female's ability. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 447–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lassek, W. D., & Gaulin, S. J. (2009). Costs and benefits of fat-free muscle mass in men: relationship to mating success, dietary requirements, and native immunity. Evolution and Human Behavior, 30, 322–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lee, S. H., & Wolpoff, M. H. (2003). The pattern of evolution in Pleistocene human brain size. Paleobiology, 29, 186–196.Google Scholar
  97. Lombardo, M. P. (2012). On the evolution of sport. Evolutionary Psychology, 10, 1–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lycett, S. J., Collard, M., & McGrew, W. C. (2009). Cladistic analyses of behavioural variation in wild Pan troglodytes: exploring the chimpanzee culture hypothesis. Journal of Human Evolution, 57, 337–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Malinowski, B. (1944). A scientific theory of culture, and other essays. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  100. Manning, J. T., & Taylor, R. P. (2001). Second to fourth digit ratio and male ability in sport: Implications for sexual selection in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior, 22, 61–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Marlowe, F. (1998). The nubility hypothesis. Human Nature, 9, 263–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Marlowe, F. W. (2005). Hunter-gatherers and human evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 14, 54–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. McBrearty, S., & Brooks, A. S. (2000). The revolution that wasn't: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior. Journal of Human Evolution, 39, 453–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Miller, G. F. (1999). Sexual selection for cultural displays. In R. Dunbar, C. Knight, & C. Power (Eds.), The evolution of culture (pp. 71–91). New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Miller, G. F. (2000). The mating mind: how sexual choice shaped the evolution of human nature. New York, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  106. Miller, G. F. (2001). Aesthetic fitness: how sexual selection shaped artistic virtuosity as a fitness indicator and aesthetic preferences as mate choice criteria. Bulletin of Psychology and the Arts, 2, 20–25.Google Scholar
  107. Miller, G. F. (2010). Spent: sex, evolution, and consumer behavior. New York, NY: Penguin.Google Scholar
  108. Miller, G. F. (2013). Mutual mate choice models as the red pill in evolutionary psychology: long delayed, much needed, ideologically challenging, and hard to swallow. Psychological Inquiry, 24, 207–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Muscarella, F., & Cunningham, M. R. (1996). The evolutionary significance and social perception of male pattern baldness and facial hair. Ethology and Sociobiology, 17, 99–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Neave, N., & Shields, K. (2008). The effects of facial hair manipulation on female perceptions of attractiveness, masculinity, and dominance in male faces. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 373–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Nelissen, R. M., & Meijers, M. H. (2011). Social benefits of luxury brands as costly signals of wealth and status. Evolution and Human Behavior, 32, 343–355.Google Scholar
  112. Nesse, R. M. (2007). Runaway social selection for displays of partner value and altruism. Biological Theory, 2, 143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Nesse, R. M. (2009). Social selection and the origins of culture. In M. Schaller, S. J. Heine, A. Norenzayan, T. Yamagishi, & T. Kameda (Eds.), Evolution, culture, and the human mind (pp. 137–150). Philadelphia, PA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  114. Nisbett, R. E., & Cohen, D. (1996). Culture of honor: the psychology of violence in the south. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  115. Norenzayan, A., & Shariff, A. F. (2008). The origin and evolution of religious prosociality. Science, 322, 58–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Nuyts, E., & Vesentini, L. (2005). The relation between seat belt use of drivers and passengers. In D. de Waard, K. A. Brookhuis, R. van Egmond, & T. Boersma (Eds.), Human factors in design, safety, and management (pp. 1–11). Maastricht: Shaker Publishing.Google Scholar
  117. Perusse, D. (1993). Cultural and reproductive success in industrial societies: testing the relationship at the proximate and ultimate levels. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 267–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Phoenix, A., Frosh, S., & Pattman, R. (2003). Producing contradictory masculine subject positions: narratives of threat, homophobia and bullying in 11–14 year old boys. Journal of Social Issues, 59, 179–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Pinker, S. (2010). The cognitive niche: coevolution of intelligence, sociality, and language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 8993–8999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Pinker, S. (2011). The better angels of our nature: the decline of violence in history and its causes. Toronto, ON: Penguin.Google Scholar
  121. Polk, K. (1999). Males and honor contest violence. Homicide Studies, 3, 6–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Pratto, F., Stallworth, L. M., & Sidanius, J. (1997). The gender gap: differences in political attitudes and social dominance orientation. British Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 49–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Price, M. E., & Van Vugt, M. (2014). The evolution of leader–follower reciprocity: the theory of service-for-prestige. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 363.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Puts, D. A. (2010). Beauty and the beast: mechanisms of sexual selection in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31, 157–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Richerson, P. J., & Boyd, R. (2004). Not by genes alone: how culture transformed human evolution. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Riddley, M. (1993). The red queen: sex and the evolution of human nature. New York, NY: Harper.Google Scholar
  127. Robinson, D. E. (1976). Fashions in shaving and trimming of the beard: the men of the Illustrated London News, 1842-1972. American Journal of Sociology, 81, 1133–1141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ronay, R., & von Hippel, W. (2010). The presence of an attractive woman elevates testosterone and physical risk taking in young men. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Rubenstein, D. R. (2012). Family feuds: social competition and sexual conflict in complex societies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367, 2304–2313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Rucker, D. D., & Galinsky, A. D. (2008). Desire to acquire: powerlessness and compensatory consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 35, 257–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rushton, J. P., & Ankney, C. D. (2009). Whole brain size and general mental ability: a review. International Journal of Neuroscience, 119, 692–732.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Saad, G., & Vongas, J. G. (2009). The effect of conspicuous consumption on men’s testosterone levels. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 110, 80–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Schwartz, S. H., & Rubel-Lifschitz, T. (2009). Cross-national variation in the size of sex differences in values: effects of gender equality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 171–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sexton, S. E., & Sexton, A. L. (2014). Conspicuous conservation: the Prius halo and willingness to pay for environmental bona fides. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 67, 303–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Shanks, D. R., Vadillo, M. A., Riedel, B., Clymo, A., Govind, S., Hickin, N., Tamman, A. J. F., & Puhlmann, L. (2015). Romance, risk, and replication: can consumer choices and risk-taking be primed by mating motives? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(6), e142–e158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Smith, B. H., & Tompkins, R. L. (1995). Toward a life history of the Hominidae. Annual Review of Anthropology, 257–279.Google Scholar
  137. Sosis, R., Kress, H. C., & Boster, J. S. (2007). Scars for war: evaluating alternative signaling explanations for cross-cultural variance in ritual costs. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 234–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Stewart-Williams, S., & Thomas, A. G. (2013). The ape that thought it was a peacock: does evolutionary psychology exaggerate human sex differences? Psychological Inquiry, 24, 137–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Su, R., Rounds, J., & Armstrong, P. I. (2009). Men and things, women and people: a meta-analysis of sex differences in interests. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 859–864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sundie, J. M., Kenrick, D. T., Griskevicius, V., Tybur, J. M., Vohs, K. D., & Beal, D. J. (2011). Peacocks, Porsches, and Thorstein Veblen: conspicuous consumption as a sexual signaling system. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 664–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Tatum, W. J. (2008). Always I am Caesar. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  142. Tooby, J., & DeVore, I. (1987). The reconstruction of hominid behavioral evolution through strategic modeling. In W. G. Kinzey (Ed.), The evolution of human behavior: Primate models (pp. 183–237). New York, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  143. Townsend, J. M., & Levy, G. D. (1990). Effects of potential partners' costume and physical attractiveness on sexuality and partner selection. The Journal of Psychology, 124, 371–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Trivers, R. L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. QUARTERLY REVIEW OF BIOLOGY, 46, 35–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Van Vugt, M., & Iredale, W. (2012). Men behaving nicely: public goods as peacock tails. British Journal of Psychology, 104, 3–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Vigil, J. D. (1996). Street baptism: Chicano gang initiation. Human Organization, 55, 149–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Wang, Y., & Griskevicius, V. (2014). Conspicuous consumption, relationships, and rivals: women’s luxury products as signals to other women. Journal of Consumer Research, 40, 834–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Wells, C. A. (2001). End of the affair: anti-dueling laws and social norms in antebellum America. The Vanderbilt Law Review, 54, 1805–1847.Google Scholar
  149. West-Eberhard, M. J. (1979). Sexual selection, social competition, and evolution. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 123, 222–234.Google Scholar
  150. West-Eberhard, M. J. (1983). Sexual selection, social competition, and speciation. QUARTERLY REVIEW OF BIOLOGY, 58, 155–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Willer, R. (2009). Groups reward individual sacrifice: the status solution to the collective action problem. American Sociological Review, 74, 23–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Willer, R., Rogalin, C. L., Conlon, B., & Wojnowicz, M. T. (2013). Overdoing gender: a test of the masculine overcompensation thesis. American Journal of Sociology, 118, 980–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Williams, G. C. (1966). Adaptation and natural selection. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  154. Wilson, M., & Daly, M. (1985). Competitiveness, risk taking, and violence: the young male syndrome. Ethology and Sociobiology, 6, 59–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Windhager, S., Schaefer, K., & Fink, B. (2011). Geometric morphometrics of male facial shape in relation to physical strength and perceived attractiveness, dominance, and masculinity. American Journal of Human Biology, 23, 805–814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Winegard, B., & Deaner, R. O. (2010). The evolutionary significance of Red Sox Nation: sport fandom as a by-product of coalitionary psychology. Evolutionary Psychology, 8, 432–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Winegard, B. M., Winegard, B., & Geary, D. C. (2013). If you’ve got it, flaunt it: humans flaunt attractive partners to enhance their status and desirability. PLoS One, 8, e72000.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Winegard, B. M., Reynolds, T., Baumeister, R. F., Winegard, B., & Maner, J. K. (2014a). Grief functions as an honest indicator of commitment. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 18, 168–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Winegard, B., Winegard, B., & Geary, D. C. (2014b). Eastwood’s brawn and Einstein’s brain: an evolutionary account of dominance, prestige, and precarious manhood. Review of General Psychology, 18, 34–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Florida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  2. 2.University of MissouriColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations