Evolutionary Psychological Science

, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 353–363 | Cite as

Disgust Trumps Lust: Women’s Disgust and Attraction Towards Men Is Unaffected by Sexual Arousal

  • Florian ZsokEmail author
  • Diana S. Fleischman
  • Charmaine Borg
  • Edward Morrison
Research Article


Mating is a double-edged sword. It can have great adaptive benefits, but also high costs, depending on the mate. Disgust is an avoidance reaction that serves the function of discouraging costly mating decisions, for example if the risk of pathogen transmission is high. It should, however, be temporarily inhibited in order to enable potentially adaptive mating. We therefore tested the hypothesis that sexual arousal inhibits disgust if a partner is attractive, but not if he is unattractive or shows signs of disease. In an online experiment, women rated their disgust towards anticipated behaviors with men depicted on photographs. Participants did so in a sexually aroused state and in a control state. The faces varied in attractiveness and the presence of disease cues (blemishes). We found that disease cues and attractiveness, but not sexual arousal, influenced disgust. The results suggest that women feel disgust at sexual contact with unattractive or diseased men independently of their sexual arousal.


Disgust Sexual arousal Attraction Physical attractiveness Disease avoidance 



We would like to thank Andrea Schlump for her helpful comments on the study design and Aaron Kreidel for the editing of the stimuli. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


  1. Al-Shawaf, L., Lewis, D. M. G., & Buss, D. M. (2015). Disgust and mating strategy. Evolution and Human Behavior, 36(3), 199–205. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2014.11.003.
  2. Al-Shawaf, L., Conroy-Beam, D., Asao, K., & Buss, D. M. (2016). Human emotions: An evolutionary psychological perspective. Emotion Review, 8(2), 173–186. doi: 10.1177/1754073914565518.
  3. Andrews, A. R. I., Crone, T., Cholka, C. B., Cooper, T. V., & Bridges, A. J. (2015). Correlational and experimental analyses of the relation between disgust and sexual arousal. Motivation and Emotion, 39(5), 766–779.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ariely, D., & Loewenstein, G. (2006). The heat of the moment: the effect of sexual arousal on sexual decision making. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 19(2), 87–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barlow, D. H. (1986). Causes of sexual dysfunction: the role of anxiety and cognitive interference. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54(2), 140–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bogaert, A. F. (1996). Volunteer bias in human sexuality research: evidence for both sexuality and personality differences in males. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25(2), 125–140. doi: 10.1007/BF02437932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borg, C., & de Jong, P. J. (2012). Feelings of disgust and disgust-induced avoidance weaken following induced sexual arousal in women. PloS One, 7(9), e44111.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borg, C., de Jong, P. J., & Weijmar Schultz, W. (2010). Vaginismus and dyspareunia: automatic vs. deliberate disgust responsivity. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 7(6), 2149–2157. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01800.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borg, C., Heitmann, J., & de Jong, P. (2015). “Yuck, they are kissing!” Understanding the transition from disgust to desire and its implications for sexual dysfunction. Paper presented at Emotions 2015. Tilburg: 6th International conference on emotions, well-being and health.Google Scholar
  10. Bundy, C. (2012). Visible difference associated with disease: skin conditions. In N. Rumsey & D. Harcourt (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of the psychology of appearance (pp. 398–413). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Buss, D. M., & Schmitt, D. P. (1993). Sexual strategies theory: an evolutionary perspective on human mating. Psychological Review, 100(2), 204–232. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.100.2.204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buss, D. M., & Symons, D. (2015). Part III: mating. In The handbook of evolutionary psychology. Somerset: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buunk, B. P., Dijkstra, P., Fetchenhauer, D., & Kenrick, D. T. (2002). Age and gender differences in mate selection criteria for various involvement levels. Personal Relationships, 9(3), 271–278. doi: 10.1111/1475-6811.00018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carvalho, J., Gomes, A. Q., Laja, P., Oliveira, C., Vilarinho, S., Janssen, E., & Nobre, P. (2013). Gender differences in sexual arousal and affective responses to erotica: the effects of type of film and fantasy instructions. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(6), 1011–1019. doi: 10.1007/s10508-013-0076-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chivers, M. L. (2010). A brief update on the specificity of sexual arousal. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 25(4), 407–414. doi: 10.1080/14681994.2010.495979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chivers, M. L., Seto, M. C., Lalumière, M. L., Laan, E., & Grimbos, T. (2010). Agreement of self-reported and genital measures of sexual arousal in men and women: a meta-analysis. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(1), 5–56. doi: 10.1007/s10508-009-9556-9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Curtis, V., Aunger, R., & Rabie, T. (2004). Evidence that disgust evolved to protect from risk of disease. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 271(Suppl_4), S131–S133. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2003.0144.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. DeBruine, L. M. (2014). Women’s preferences for male facial features. In V. A. Weekes-Shackelford & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), Evolutionary perspectives on human sexual psychology and behavior (pp. 261–275). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DeBruine, L. M., Jones, B. C., Tybur, J. M., Lieberman, D., & Griskevicius, V. (2010). Women’s preferences for masculinity in male faces are predicted by pathogen disgust, but not by moral or sexual disgust. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31(1), 69–74. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2009.09.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dixson, A. F. (2009). Sexual selection and the origins of human mating systems. Oxford, GBR: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Eastwick, P. W., Luchies, L. B., Finkel, E. J., & Hunt, L. L. (2014). The predictive validity of ideal partner preferences: a review and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140(3), 623–665. doi: 10.1037/a0032432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fessler, D. M. T., & Navarrete, C. D. (2003). Domain-specific variation in disgust sensitivity across the menstrual cycle. Evolution and Human Behavior, 24(6), 406–417. doi: 10.1016/S1090-5138(03)00054-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fleischman, D. S. (2014). Women’s disgust adaptations. In V. A. Weekes-Shackelford & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), Evolutionary perspectives on human sexual psychology and behavior (pp. 277–296). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fleischman, D. S. (2017). Sex-differences in disease avoidance. In T. K. Shackelford & V. A. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science. New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media.Google Scholar
  25. Fleischman, D. S., Hamilton, L. D., Fessler, D. M. T., & Meston, C. M. (2015). Disgust versus lust: exploring the interactions of disgust and fear with sexual arousal in women. PloS One, 10(6), e0118151. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118151.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Flying the Nest (2015, March 1st). Hiking the Hollywood sign [Video file]. Retrieved from
  27. Gangestad, S. W. (1993). Sexual selection and physical attractiveness. Human Nature, 4(3), 205–235. doi: 10.1007/BF02692200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goldey, K. L., & van Anders, S. M. (2016). Identification with stimuli moderates women’s affective and testosterone responses to self-chosen erotica. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(8), 2155–2171. doi: 10.1007/s10508-015-0612-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grauvogl, A., de Jong, P., Peters, M., Evers, S., van Overveld, M., & van Lankveld, J. (2015). Disgust and sexual arousal in young adult men and women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(6), 1515–1525. doi: 10.1007/s10508-014-0349-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gruijters, S. L. K., Tybur, J. M., Ruiter, R. A. C., & Massar, K. (2016). Sex, germs, and health: pathogen-avoidance motives and health-protective behavior. Psychology & Health, 1–17. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2016.1161194.
  31. Guo, Y., Logan, H. L., Glueck, D. H., & Muller, K. E. (2013). Selecting a sample size for studies with repeated measures. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 13(1), 100.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hamilton, L. D., & Meston, C. M. (2013). Chronic stress and sexual function in women. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 10(10), 2443–2454. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12249.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Harte, C. B., & Meston, C. M. (2008). The inhibitory effects of nicotine on physiological sexual arousal in nonsmoking women: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5(5), 1184–1197. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.00778.x.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hawk, S. T., Tolman, R., & Mueller, C. W. (2007). The effects of target attractiveness on men’s sexual arousal in response to erotic auditory stimuli. Journal of Sex Research, 44(1), 96–103. doi: 10.1207/s15598519jsr4401_10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hock, R. (2015). Human sexuality (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson.Google Scholar
  36. Ioannou, S., Morris, P., Terry, S., Baker, M., Gallese, V., & Reddy, V. (2016). Sympathy crying: insights from infrared thermal imaging on a female sample. PloS One, 11(10), e0162749. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162749.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Istvan, J., Griffitt, W., & Weidner, G. (1983). Sexual arousal and the polarization of perceived sexual attractiveness. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 4(4), 307–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Janssen, E., & Bancroft, J. (2007). The dual-control model: the role of sexual inhibition and excitation in sexual arousal and behavior. The Psychophysiology of Sex, 15, 197–222.Google Scholar
  39. Jones, A. L., & Kramer, R. S. S. (2015). Facial cosmetics have little effect on attractiveness judgments compared with identity. Perception, 44(1), 79–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. de Jong, P. J., van Overveld, M., & Borg, C. (2013). Giving in to arousal or staying stuck in disgust? Disgust-based mechanisms in sex and sexual dysfunction. Journal of Sex Research, 50(3–4), 247–262. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2012.746280.
  41. Kelley, K., & Musialowski, D. (1986). Repeated exposure to sexually explicit stimuli: novelty, sex, and sexual attitudes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 15(6), 487–498. doi: 10.1007/BF01542313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kent, G. (2002). Testing a model of disfigurement: effects of a skin camouflage service on well-being and appearance anxiety. Psychology & Health, 17(3), 377–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Koukounas, E., & Over, R. (2000). Changes in the magnitude of the eyeblink startle response during habituation of sexual arousal. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38(6), 573–584. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(99)00075-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Koukounas, E., & McCabe, M. P. (2001). Sexual and emotional variables influencing sexual response to erotica: A psychophysiological investigation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 30(4), 393–408. doi: 10.1023/A:1010261315767.
  45. ter Kuile, M. M., Both, S., & van Uden, J. (2010). The effects of experimentally-induced sad and happy mood on sexual arousal in sexually healthy women. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 7(3), 1177–1184. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01632.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lee, E. M., Ambler, J. K., & Sagarin, B. J. (2014). Effects of subjective sexual arousal on sexual, pathogen, and moral disgust sensitivity in women and men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43(6), 1115–1121. doi: 10.1007/s10508-014-0271-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Little, A. C. (2014). Facial attractiveness. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 5(6), 621–634. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Little, A. C., DeBruine, L. M., & Jones, B. C. (2011). Exposure to visual cues of pathogen contagion changes preferences for masculinity and symmetry in opposite-sex faces. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 278(1714), 2032–2039. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2010.1925.
  49. Little, A. C., DeBruine, L. M., & Jones, B. C. (2014). Sex differences in attraction to familiar and unfamiliar opposite-sex faces: men prefer novelty and women prefer familiarity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43(5), 973–981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lund, E. M., & Boggero, I. A. (2014). Sick in the head? Pathogen concerns bias implicit perceptions of mental illness. Evolutionary Psychology, 12(4), 706–718. doi: 10.1177/147470491401200403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Madkan, V. K., Giancola, A. A., Sra, K. K., & Tyring, S. K. (2006). Sex differences in the transmission, prevention, and disease manifestations of sexually transmitted diseases. Archives of Dermatology, 142(3), 365–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mass, R., Hölldorfer, M., Moll, B., Bauer, R., & Wolf, K. (2009). Why we haven’t died out yet: changes in women’s mimic reactions to visual erotic stimuli during their menstrual cycles. Hormones and Behavior, 55(2), 267–271. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2008.06.007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Masters, W. H., & Johnson, V. E. (1966). Human sexual response. Oxford: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  54. Mehrabian, A., & Blum, J. S. (1997). Physical appearance, attractiveness, and the mediating role of emotions. Current Psychology: a Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues, 16(1), 20–42. doi: 10.1007/s12144-997-1013-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Miller, S. L., & Maner, J. K. (2011). Sick body, vigilant mind: the biological immune system activates the behavioral immune system. Psychological Science, 22(12), 1467–1471. doi: 10.1177/0956797611420166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mortensen, C. R., Becker, D. V., Ackerman, J. M., Neuberg, S. L., & Kenrick, D. T. (2010). Infection breeds reticence: the effects of disease salience on self-perceptions of personality and behavioral avoidance tendencies. Psychological Science, 21(3), 440–447. doi: 10.1177/0956797610361706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Murray, D. R., Jones, D. N., & Schaller, M. (2013). Perceived threat of infectious disease and its implications for sexual attitudes. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(1), 103–108. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2012.08.021.
  58. Oaten, M., Stevenson, R. J., & Case, T. I. (2009). Disgust as a disease-avoidance mechanism. Psychological Bulletin, 135(2), 303–321. doi: 10.1037/a0014823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Olszanowski, M., Pochwatko, G., Kuklinski, K., Scibor-Rylski, M., Lewinski, P., & Ohme, R. K. (2015). Warsaw set of emotional facial expression pictures: a validation study of facial display photographs. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1516. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01516.
  60. van Overveld, M., & Borg, C. (2015). Brief emotion regulation training facilitates arousal control during sexual stimuli. The Journal of Sex Research, 52(9), 996–1005. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2014.948111.
  61. van Overveld, M., de Jong, P. J., Peters, M. L., van Lankveld, J., Melles, R., & ter Kuile, M. M. (2013). The sexual disgust questionnaire; a psychometric study and a first exploration in patients with sexual dysfunctions. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 10(2), 396–407. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02979.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Park, J. H., van Leeuwen, F., & Stephen, I. D. (2012). Homeliness is in the disgust sensitivity of the beholder: relatively unattractive faces appear especially unattractive to individuals higher in pathogen disgust. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33(5), 569–577. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2012.02.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Peng, M., Chang, L., & Zhou, R. (2013). Physiological and behavioral responses to strangers compared to friends as a source of disgust. Evolution and Human Behavior, 34(2), 94–98. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2012.10.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Prause, N., Janssen, E., & Hetrick, W. P. (2008). Attention and emotional responses to sexual stimuli and their relationship to sexual desire. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37(6), 934–949. doi: 10.1007/s10508-007-9236-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Principe, C. P., & Langlois, J. H. (2011). Faces differing in attractiveness elicit corresponding affective responses. Cognition and Emotion, 25(1), 140–148.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Re, D. E., & Rule, N. O. (2016). Appearance and physiognomy. In D. Matsumoto, H. C. Hwang, M. G. Frank, & D. (Eds.), APA handbook of nonverbal communication (pp. 221–256). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Renfro, K. J., Rupp, H., & Wallen, K. (2015). Duration of oral contraceptive use predicts women’s initial and subsequent subjective responses to sexual stimuli. Hormones and Behavior, 75, 33–40. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.07.013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rohrmann, S., Hopp, H., & Quirin, M. (2008). Gender differences in psychophysiological responses to disgust. Journal of Psychophysiology, 22(2), 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rozin, P., Nemeroff, C., Horowitz, M., Gordon, B., & Voet, W. (1995). The borders of the self: contamination sensitivity and potency of the body apertures and other body parts. Journal of Research in Personality, 29(3), 318–340. doi: 10.1006/jrpe.1995.1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rozin, P., Haidt, J., & Mcauley, C. R. (2008). Disgust. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed., pp. 757–776). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  71. Ryan, S., Oaten, M., Stevenson, R. J., & Case, T. I. (2012). Facial disfigurement is treated like an infectious disease. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33(6), 639–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sacco, D. F., Jones, B. C., DeBruine, L. M., & Hugenberg, K. (2012). The roles of sociosexual orientation and relationship status in women’s face preferences. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(8), 1044–1047. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2012.07.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schachter, R. J., Pantel, E. S., Glassman, G. M., & Zweibelson, I. (1971). Acne vulgaris and psychologic impact on high school students. New York State Journal of Medicine, 71(24), 2886–2890.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Schaller, M. (2015). The Behavioral Immune System. In The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology (2nd ed.pp. 206–224). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. doi: 10.1002/9781119125563.evpsych107.
  75. Schmitt, D. P. (2015). Fundamentals of human mating strategies. In The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology (2nd ed.pp. 294–316). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. doi: 10.1002/9781119125563.evpsych111.
  76. Simmons, J. P., Nelson, L. D., & Simonsohn, U. (2011). False-positive psychology: undisclosed flexibility in data collection and analysis allows presenting anything as significant. Psychological Science, 22(11), 1359–1366. doi: 10.1177/0956797611417632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Skolnick, A. J. (2013). Gender differences when touching something gross: unpleasant? No. Disgusting? Yes! Journal of General Psychology, 140(2), 144–157. doi: 10.1080/00221309.2013.781989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stevenson, R. J., Case, T. I., & Oaten, M. J. (2011). Effect of self-reported sexual arousal on responses to sex-related and non-sex-related disgust cues. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40(1), 79–85. doi: 10.1007/s10508-009-9529-z.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Stone, E. A., Shackelford, T. K., & Goetz, A. T. (2011). Sexual arousal and the pursuit of attractive mating opportunities. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(5), 575–578. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.05.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sugiyama, L. S. (2016). Physical attractiveness in adaptationist perspective. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The handbook of evolutionary psychology (2nd ed., pp. 292–343). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc..Google Scholar
  81. Toates, F. (2009). An integrative theoretical framework for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior. Journal of Sex Research, 46(2–3), 168–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (2008). The evolutionary psychology of the emotions and their relationship to internal regulatory variables. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed., pp. 114–137). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  83. Trivers, R. L. (1996). Parental investment and sexual selection. In L. D. Houck & L. C. Drickamer (Eds.), Foundations of animal behavior: Classic papers with commentaries (pp. 795–838). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  84. Tybur, J. M., & Gangestad, S. W. (2011). Mate preferences and infectious disease: theoretical considerations and evidence in humans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1583), 3375–3388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tybur, J. M., & Lieberman, D. (2016). Human pathogen avoidance adaptations. Current Opinion in Psychology, 7, 6–11. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.06.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tybur, J. M., Lieberman, D., & Griskevicius, V. (2009). Microbes, mating, and morality: Individual differences in three functional domains of disgust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(1), 103–122. doi: 10.1037/a0015474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tybur, J. M., Merriman, L. A., Hooper, A. E. C., McDonald, M. M., & Navarrete, C. D. (2010). Extending the behavioral immune system to political psychology: are political conservatism and disgust sensitivity really related? Evolutionary Psychology, 8(4), 599–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tybur, J. M., Bryan, A. D., Lieberman, D., Caldwell Hooper, A. E., & Merriman, L. A. (2011). Sex differences and sex similarities in disgust sensitivity. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(3), 343–348. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.04.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tybur, J. M., Lieberman, D., Kurzban, R., & DeScioli, P. (2013). Disgust: Evolved function and structure. Psychological Review, 120(1), 65–84. doi: 10.1037/a0030778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Vonderheide, S. G., & Mosher, D. L. (1988). Should I put in my diaphragm? Sex-guilt and turn-offs. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 1(1), 97–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wagstaff, D. L., Sulikowski, D., & Burke, D. (2015). Sex-differences in preference for looking at the face or body in short-term and long-term mating contexts. Evolution, Mind and Behavior, 13(1), 1–17.Google Scholar
  92. Wallen, K., & Rupp, H. A. (2010). Women’s interest in visual sexual stimuli varies with menstrual cycle phase at first exposure and predicts later interest. Hormones and Behavior, 57(2), 263–268. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2009.12.005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wang, H., Hahn, A. C., DeBruine, L. M., & Jones, B. C. (2016). Do partnered women discriminate men’s faces less along the attractiveness dimension? Personality and Individual Differences, 98, 153–156. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.04.024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Weijters, B., Cabooter, E., & Schillewaert, N. (2010). The effect of rating scale format on response styles: The number of response categories and response category labels. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 27(3), 236–247. doi: 10.1016/j.ijresmar.2010.02.004.
  95. Wiederman, M. W. (1999). Volunteer bias in sexuality research using college student participants. Journal of Sex Research, 36(1), 59–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wilcox, A. J., Dunson, D., & Baird, D. D. (2000). The timing of the “fertile window” in the menstrual cycle: day specific estimates from a prospective study. BMJ, 321(7271), 1259–1262. doi: 10.1136/bmj.321.7271.1259.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Willis, J., & Todorov, A. (2006). First impressions: making up your mind after a 100-ms exposure to a face. Psychological Science, 17(7), 592–598. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01750.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Woodard, T. L., Collins, K., Perez, M., Balon, R., Tancer, M. E., Kruger, M., et al. (2008). What kind of erotic film clips should we use in female sex research? An exploratory study. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5(1), 146–154. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00641.x.
  99. Wright, E. T., Martin, R., Flynn, C., & Gunter, R. (1970). Some psychological effects of cosmetics. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 30(1), 12–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Young, S. G., Sacco, D. F., & Hugenberg, K. (2011). Vulnerability to disease is associated with a domain-specific preference for symmetrical faces relative to symmetrical non-face stimuli. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41(5), 558–563. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zsok, F., Haucke, M., de Wit, C. Y., & Barelds, D. P. H. (2017). What kind of love is love at first sight? An empirical investigation. Personal Relationships.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Florian Zsok
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Diana S. Fleischman
    • 1
  • Charmaine Borg
    • 3
  • Edward Morrison
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PortsmouthPortsmouthUK
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ZurichZürichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental PsychopathologyUniversity of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations