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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with schizophrenia with cardiometabolic comorbidities in the 6-month pre-index period

From: Economic Impact in Medicaid Beneficiaries with Schizophrenia and Cardiometabolic Comorbidities Treated with Once-Monthly Paliperidone Palmitate vs. Oral Atypical Antipsychotics

Characteristics PP1M
(n = 371)
OAA
(n = 8296)
Std diff (%)
Age (years), mean ± SD (median) 45.0 ± 10.7 (46.5) 47.5 ± 10.5 (49.4) 24.1*
Female, n (%) 167 (45.0) 4228 (51.0) 11.9*
Race, n (%)
 White 166 (44.7) 4634 (55.9) 22.4*
 Black 166 (44.7) 2794 (33.7) 22.8*
 Hispanic 0 (0.0) 41 (0.5) 10.0*
 Other 26 (7.0) 513 (6.2) 3.3
 Unknown 13 (3.5) 314 (3.8) 1.5
State, n (%)
 Iowa 7 (1.9) 258 (3.1) 7.8
 Kansas 27 (7.3) 659 (7.9) 2.5
 Mississippi 31 (8.4) 746 (9.0) 2.3
 Missouri 214 (57.7) 3925 (47.3) 20.9*
 New Jersey 72 (19.4) 2241 (27.0) 18.1*
 Wisconsin 20 (5.4) 467 (5.6) 1.0
Region, n (%)
 Urban 200 (53.9) 4902 (59.1) 10.5*
 Suburban 91 (24.5) 2009 (24.2) 0.7
 Rural 80 (21.6) 1385 (16.7) 12.4*
Year of index date, n (%)
 2010 151 (40.7) 4161 (50.2) 19.1*
 2011 92 (24.8) 2077 (25.0) 0.6
 2012 66 (17.8) 1192 (14.4) 9.3
 2013 41 (11.1) 690 (8.3) 9.3
 2014 21 (5.7) 176 (2.1) 18.4*
Quan-CCI, mean ± SD (median) 1.0 ± 1.2 (1.0) 1.4 ± 1.7 (1.0) 27.1*
Number of unique mental health diagnoses, mean ± SD (median) 7.5 ± 6.8 (6.0) 8.2 ± 7.8 (6.0) 9.4
AP use, n (%) 244 (65.8) 4433 (53.4) 25.3*
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 148 (39.9) 3456 (41.7) 3.6
CVD, n (%) 329 (88.7) 7376 (88.9) 0.7
All-cause resource utilization (≥ 1 visit), n (%)
 Outpatient visits 355 (95.7) 7812 (94.2) 6.9
 Emergency room visits 177 (47.7) 4046 (48.8) 2.1
 Inpatient visits 191 (51.5) 4536 (54.7) 6.4
 Skilled nursing and long-term care admissions 14 (3.8) 693 (8.4) 19.3*
 Mental health institute admissions 227 (61.2) 3607 (43.5) 36.0*
 One-day mental health institute visits 260 (70.1) 4787 (57.7) 26.0*
 Home care services 161 (43.4) 3698 (44.6) 2.4
 Other services 97 (26.1) 2536 (30.6) 9.8
All-cause monthly cost ($US 2015), mean ± SD (median)
 Pharmacy and medical costs 2617 ± 3669 (1507) 3160 ± 5683 (1568) 11.4*
 Pharmacy costs 418 ± 721 (46) 373 ± 730 (46) 6.2
 Medical costs 2199 ± 3523 (1114) 2787 ± 5560 (1259) 12.6*
  1. AP antipsychotic, CVD cardiovascular disease, OAA oral atypical antipsychotic, PP1M once-monthly paliperidone palmitate, Quan-CCI Quan–Charlson Comorbidity Index, SD standard deviation, Std diff standardized difference
  2. *Indicates the standardized difference between cohorts was ≥ 10%