Skip to main content

Design, Build, and Test a Hybrid Cooling System for Crash Helmet


In this current work, a designed hybrid cooling system is proposed which combines a phase change material (PCM) aimed to absorb the excess heat from the user’s head and thermoelectric technology (TEC) amid to cool the PCM in order to compensate the cold temperature lost when cooling the users head. This combination solved a major problem found in previous research studies, the limited usage time for the PCM pouch. The simulation in stand-still condition predicted a heatsink temperature of about 80 °C and a cooling temperature for the head around 24 °C. For moving conditions, the heat sink temperature reached 50 °C and the cooling temperature for the head reached 24 °C. The simulation showed the need of cooling the heat sink to obtain maximum performance. Experimentally, the system has been built and it was guided by the predictions, and tested with an infrared (IR) camera. Testing outcomes showed good results and no overheating in any part of the system by recording a temperature of 25 °C for the heat sink in stand-still condition and 19.5 °C in moving conditions as designed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the designed system has worked successfully and improves the comfortability while wearing a crash helmet.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24
Fig. 25
Fig. 26
Fig. 27
Fig. 28
Fig. 29
Fig. 30
Fig. 31
Fig. 32
Fig. 33
Fig. 34


  1. Mohan, D., Kothyial, K. P., Misra, B. K., Banerji, A. K. Helmet and head injury study of crash involved motorcyclists in Delhi. Proceedings of the 1984 International IRCOBI conference on the biomechanics of impacts, Delft, The Netherland, 4–6, Sep., pp. 65–77, 1984

  2. Chelliah A, Karthick B, Vimalkodeeswaran A, Hariram VR (2015) Helmet cooling system using phase change material. J Eng Appl Sci 10(4):1770–1773

    Google Scholar 

  3. Airaksinen M, Tuomaala P, Holopainen R (2007) Modeling human thermal comfort, paper presented at CLIMA 2007 – wellbeing indoors. Helsinki, Finland

    Google Scholar 

  4. Hsu YL, Tai CY, Chen TC (1999) Improving thermal properties of industrial safety helmets. Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 26:109–117

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Buist, R. J., Streitwieser G. D. The Thermoelectrically cooled helmet. Proceedings of the 17 International Thermoelectric Conference, Arlington, TX, USA, pp: 88–94, 1988

  6. Carpenter B (1987) Heads, helmets and heat. Road Rider Magazine, Sep

    Google Scholar 

  7. Kissen AT, Hall JF, Klemm FK (1971) Physiological responses to cooling the head and neck versus the trunk and leg areas in severe hypothermic exposure. Aerospace Magazine, August

    Google Scholar 

  8. Konz S, Duncan J (1969) Cooling with a water cooled hood. Proceedings of the symposium on individual cooling, Kansas State University 138-169

  9. Rasch W, Cabnac M (1993) Selective brain cooling is affected by wearing headgear during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Therapy 74:1229–1233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Clark RP, Toy N (1991) Forced convention around a human head. Journal of Applied Physiology 71(2):590–595

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Holland EJ (2002) Helmet design to facilitate thermoneutrality during forest harvesting. Ergonomics 45(10):699–716

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Yavuz, H., Ahiska R. Thermoelectric brain cooler helmet. 6th International Advanced Technologies Symposium (IATS'11), 16–18 May,Elazig, Turkey, 2011

  13. Hrairi M, Abdullah FA, Ahmed MI (2013) Cooling of motorcyclist helmet with thermoelectric module. International Journal of Scientific Research 13:103–108

    Google Scholar 

  14. Kishor DA (2015) Cooling of bilker's helmet using Peltier module. International Journal of Advanced Technology in Engineering and Science 3(1):1326–1330

    Google Scholar 

  15. Ravikumar, M., Spinivasan DR. PSS. Phase change material as a thermal energy storage material for cooling of building. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, pp. 503–511, 2008

  16. Leoni N, Amon C (1997) Transient thermal Design of Wearable Computers with embedded electronics using phase change materials. ASME HTD 343:49–56

    Google Scholar 

  17. Antohe BV, Lage JL, Price DC, Weber JL (1996) Thermal management of high frequency electronic systems with mechanically compressed microporous cold plates. Thermal Management of Commercial and Military Electronics, Proceeding of ASME National Heat Transfer Conference, pp 179–186

    Google Scholar 

  18. Wirtz, R. A., Zheng, N., Chandra, D. Thermal management using dry phase change materials. Proceeding of Fifteen IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium, San Diego CA, pp. 74–82, 9–11 March, 1999

  19. Tan FL, Fok SC (2006) Cooling of helmet with phase change material. Journal of Applied Thermal Engineering 26:2067–2072

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Fok SC, Tan FL, Sua CC (2011) Experimental investigations on the cooling of a motorcycle helmet with phase change material (PCM). Therm Sci 15(13):807–816

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Lamberg P, Siren K (2003) Approximate analytical model for solidification in a finite PCM storage with internal fins. Applied Mathematical Modeling 27:491–513

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Mithun SK, Umesh S, Pathan R (2013) Conceptual Design of Motorcycle Helmet to meet the requirement of thermal comfort. Ergonomics and Safety 12(1):65–71

    Google Scholar 

  23. Karekar, V., Khatri, V. Helmet cooling with phase change material. IJCA Proceedings on National Conference on Innovative Paradigms in Engineering and Technology (NCIPET 2012), 10, pp. 1–5, 2012

  24. Ghani S, ElBialy EMAA, Bakochristou F, Gamaledin SMA, Rashwan MM (2017) The effect of forced convection and PCM on helmets’ thermal performance in hot and arid environments. Appl Therm Eng 111:624–637

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Raut, M. S., Walki, P. V.. Thermoelectric Air Cooling For Cars. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST).4 (5), 2012

  26. Last accessed19, April, 2018

  27. Zalba B, Marin JM, Cabeza LF, Mehling H (2003) Review on thermal energy storage with phase change: materials, heat transfer analysis and applications. Appl. Therm. Eng. 23(2):251–283

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Pomianowski M, Heiselberg P, Zhang Y (2013) Review of thermal energy storage technologies based on PCM application in buildings. Energy Build 67:56–69

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Kumar R, Misra MK, Kumar R, Gupta D, Khatri P, Tak BB, Meena SS (2011) Phase change materials: technology status and potential defense applications. Def Sci J 61(6):576–582

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Mohamed SA, Al-Sulaiman INI, Zahir MH, Al-Ahmed A, Saidur R, Yilbas BS, Sahin AZ (2017) A review on current status and challenges of inorganic phase change materials for thermal energy storage systems. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 70(4):1072–1089

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Giro-Paloma J, Martinez M, Cabeza LF, Fernandez AI (2016) Types, methods, techniques, and applications for microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM): A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 53(1):1059–1075

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Sharma A, Tyagi V, Chen CR, Buddhi D (2009) Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials and applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 13:318–345

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Lane GA (1985) Solar heat storage: latent heat materials. Technology, vol. 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA

    Google Scholar 

  34. Hebei I.T. (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. Last accessed:15, Feb,2018

  35. Last accessed:15, Feb,2018

Download references


The authors would like to express their gratitude and appreciation to Philadelphia University higher administration for their financial support. Also, would like to extend their deepest thanks to Mechanical Engineering workshops for their assistance and support throughout the project.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to M.S.Y. Ebaid.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ebaid, M., Shehadeh, B. Design, Build, and Test a Hybrid Cooling System for Crash Helmet. Exp Tech 43, 613–633 (2019).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Phase change material
  • Peltier module
  • Crash helmet
  • Heat sink
  • Hybrid system