Hull CWA, CA), inventor; UVP, Inc. (San Gabriel, CA), assignee. Apparatus for production of three-dimensional objects by stereolithography. United States patent 4575330. 1986.
Hull CW. The birth of 3D printing. Res Technol Manag. 2015;58(6):25–30.
Noecker AM, Chen JF, Zhou Q, White RD, Kopcak MW, Arruda MJ, et al. Development of patient-specific three-dimensional pediatric cardiac models. ASAIO J. 2006;52(3):349–53 This paper reports the first use of 3D printed models of a congenital heart defect.
Ngan EM, Rebeyka IM, Ross DB, Hirji M, Wolfaardt JF, Seelaus R, et al. The rapid prototyping of anatomic models in pulmonary atresia. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;132(2):264–9.
Talanki VR, Peng Q, Shamir SB, Baete SH, Duong TQ, Wake N. Three-dimensional printed anatomic models derived from magnetic resonance imaging data: current state and image acquisition recommendations for appropriate clinical scenarios. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2021.
Parthasarathy J, Krishnamurthy R, Ostendorf A, Shinoka T. 3D printing with MRI in pediatric applications. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2020;51(6):1641–58.
Parimi M, Buelter J, Thanugundla V, Condoor S, Parkar N, Danon S, et al. Feasibility and validity of printing 3D heart models from rotational angiography. Pediatr Cardiol. 2018;39(4):653–8.
Seckeler MD, Boe BA, Barber BJ, Berman DP, Armstrong AK. Use of rotational angiography in congenital cardiac catheterisations to generate three-dimensional-printed models. Cardiol Young. 2021;31(9):1407–11.
Huang J, Shi H, Chen Q, Hu J, Zhang Y, Song H, et al. Three-dimensional printed model fabrication and effectiveness evaluation in fetuses with congenital heart disease or with a normal heart. J Ultrasound Med. 2021;40(1):15–28.
Kurup HK, Samuel BP, Vettukattil JJ. Hybrid 3D printing: a game-changer in personalized cardiac medicine? Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2015;13(12):1281–4.
Gosnell J, Pietila T, Samuel BP, Kurup HK, Haw MP, Vettukattil JJ. Integration of computed tomography and three-dimensional echocardiography for hybrid three-dimensional printing in congenital heart disease. J Digit Imaging. 2016;29(6):665–9 A report on the use of hybrid model generation by incorporating data from multiple imaging modalities.
Hadeed K, Guitarte A, Briot J, Dulac Y, Alacoque X, Acar P, et al. Feasibility and accuracy of printed models of complex cardiac defects in small infants from cardiac computed tomography. Pediatr Radiol. 2021;51(11):1983–90.
Lee S, Squelch A, Sun Z. Quantitative assessment of 3D printed model accuracy in delineating congenital heart disease. Biomolecules. 2021;11(2).
Dodge-Khatami J, Adebo DA. Evaluation of complex congenital heart disease in infants using low dose cardiac computed tomography. Int J Card Imaging. 2021;37(4):1455–60 A report of the use of lower-dose radiation protocols for obtaining cardiac CT scans. This will be extremly important for widespread adoption of 3D imaging as there is a concern about radiation exposure during medical imaging, particularly for young patients.
Fetterly KA, Ferrero A, Lewis BR, Anderson JH, Hagler DJ, Taggart NW. Radiation dose reduction for 3D angiography images in pediatric and congenital cardiology. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2021;97(4):E502–e9.
Abudayyeh I, Gordon B, Ansari MM, Jutzy K, Stoletniy L, Hilliard A. A practical guide to cardiovascular 3D printing in clinical practice: overview and examples. J Interv Cardiol. 2018;31(3):375–83.
Townsend K, Pietila T. 3D printing and modeling of congenital heart defects: a technical review. Birth Defects Res. 2018;110(13):1091–7 Review of the technical aspects of 3D model generation and printing.
Yang DH, Park SH, Kim N, Choi ES, Kwon BS, Park CS, et al. Incremental value of 3D printing in the preoperative planning of complex congenital heart disease surgery. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2021;14(6):1265–70.
Yıldız O, Köse B, Tanıdır IC, Pekkan K, Güzeltaş A, Haydin S. Single-center experience with routine clinical use of 3D technologies in surgical planning for pediatric patients with complex congenital heart disease. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2021;27(4):488–96.
Farooqi KM, Gonzalez-Lengua C, Shenoy R, Sanz J, Nguyen K. Use of a three dimensional printed cardiac model to assess suitability for biventricular repair. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2016;7(3):414–6.
Garekar S, Bharati A, Chokhandre M, Mali S, Trivedi B, Changela VP, et al. Clinical application and multidisciplinary assessment of three dimensional printing in double outlet right ventricle with remote ventricular septal defect. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2016;7(3):344–50.
Bhatla P, Tretter JT, Ludomirsky A, Argilla M, Latson LA Jr, Chakravarti S, et al. Utility and scope of rapid prototyping in patients with complex muscular ventricular septal defects or double-outlet right ventricle: does it alter management decisions? Pediatr Cardiol. 2017;38(1):103–14 One of the earlier reports demonstrating the utility of 3D printed models in pre-procedural planning and, in particular, the potential to perform minimally invasive interventions that were thought to not be possible based on standard imaging modalities.
Taqatqa AS, Vettukattil JJ. Atrioventricular septal defects: pathology, imaging, and treatment options. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2021;23(8):93.
Najm HK, Karamlou T, Ahmad M, Hassan S, Yaman M, Stewart R, et al. Biventricular conversion in unseptatable hearts: “ventricular switch”. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2021;33(1):172–80.
Kappanayil M, Koneti NR, Kannan RR, Kottayil BP, Kumar K. Three-dimensional-printed cardiac prototypes aid surgical decision-making and preoperative planning in selected cases of complex congenital heart diseases: early experience and proof of concept in a resource-limited environment. Ann Pediatr Cardiol. 2017;10(2):117–25.
Deng X, He S, Huang P, Luo J, Yang G, Zhou B, et al. A three-dimensional printed model in preoperative consent for ventricular septal defect repair. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2021;16(1):229.
Zhao L, Zhou S, Fan T, Li B, Liang W, Dong H. Three-dimensional printing enhances preparation for repair of double outlet right ventricular surgery. J Card Surg. 2018;33(1):24–7.
Olivieri L, Krieger A, Chen MY, Kim P, Kanter JP. 3D heart model guides complex stent angioplasty of pulmonary venous baffle obstruction in a Mustard repair of D-TGA. Int J Cardiol. 2014;172(2):e297–8 One of the first reports of a 3D printed model used to plan a catheter-based intervention for congenital heart disease.
McGovern EM, Tretter JT, Moore RA, Goldstein BH. Simulation to success: treatment of a 3D printed heart before complex systemic venous baffle intervention. JACC Case Rep. 2020;2(3):486–7.
Hassler KR, Stephens EH, Miranda WR, Foley TA, Dearani JA. Intra-atrial pulmonary venous conduit leak in criss-cross heart: role of three-dimensional modeling. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2021:21501351211037626.
Valverde I, Gomez G, Coserria JF, Suarez-Mejias C, Uribe S, Sotelo J, et al. 3D printed models for planning endovascular stenting in transverse aortic arch hypoplasia. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2015;85(6):1006–12.
Pluchinotta FR, Giugno L, Carminati M. Stenting complex aortic coarctation: simulation in a 3D printed model. EuroIntervention. 2017;13(4):490.
Yan C, Wang C, Pan X, Li S, Song H, Liu Q, et al. Three-dimensional printing assisted transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect with deficient posterior-inferior rim. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2018;92(7):1309–14.
He L, Cheng GS, Du YJ, Zhang YS. Feasibility of device closure for multiple atrial septal defects with an inferior sinus venosus defect: procedural planning using three-dimensional printed models. Heart Lung Circ. 2019.
Yan C, Li S, Song H, Jin J, Zheng H, Wang C, et al. Off-label use of duct occluder in transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defect with no rim to right pulmonary vein. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2019;157(4):1603–8.
Kops SA, Pangburn S, Barber BJ, Seckeler MD. Transcatheter treatment of acquired coronary sinus ostium atresia in a child with complex congenital heart disease. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2020;95(2):E62–E5.
Lee DT, Venkatesh P, Bravo-Jaimes K, Lluri G, Yang EH, Tan W, et al. Using a 3-dimensional printed model to plan percutaneous closure of an unroofed coronary sinus. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2021:Circimaging121013018.
Jivanji SGM, Qureshi SA, Rosenthal E. Novel use of a 3D printed heart model to guide simultaneous percutaneous repair of severe pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular outflow tract aneurysm. Cardiol Young. 2019;29(4):534–7.
Pluchinotta FR, Sturla F, Caimi A, Giugno L, Chessa M, Giamberti A, et al. 3-Dimensional personalized planning for transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation in a dysfunctional right ventricular outflow tract. Int J Cardiol. 2020;309:33–9.
Aroney N, Putrino A, Scalia G, Walters D. 3D printed cardiac fistula: guiding percutaneous structural intervention. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2018;92(7):E478–e80.
Aroney N, Markham R, Putrino A, Crowhurst J, Wall D, Scalia G, et al. Three-dimensional printed cardiac fistulae: a case series. Eur Heart J Case Rep. 2019;3(2).
Chamberlain RC, Ezekian JE, Sturgeon GM, Barker PCA, Hill KD, Fleming GA. Preprocedural three-dimensional planning aids in transcatheter ductal stent placement: a single-center experience. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2020;95(6):1141–8.
Kern MC, Janardhanan R, Kelly T, Fox KA, Klewer SE, Seckeler MD. Multimodality imaging for diagnosis and procedural planning for a ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2020;14(6):e139–e42.
Aregullin EO, Mohammad Nijres B, Al-Khatib Y, Vettukattil J. Transcatheter Fontan completion using novel balloon and stent system. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2021;97(4):679–84.
Seckeler MD, White SC, Klewer SE, Ott P. Transjugular transseptal approach for left ventricular pacing lead in an adult with criss-cross heart. JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2019;5(8):998–9.
Kanawati J, Kanawati AJ, Rowe MK, Khan H, Chan WK, Yee R. Utility of 3-D printing for cardiac resynchronization device implantation in congenital heart disease. HeartRhythm Case Rep. 62020. p. 754-6.
Riahi M, Velasco Forte MN, Byrne N, Hermuzi A, Jones M, Baruteau AE, et al. Early experience of transcatheter correction of superior sinus venosus atrial septal defect with partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. EuroIntervention. 2018;14(8):868–76.
Velasco Forte MN, Byrne N, Valverde I, Gomez Ciriza G, Hermuzi A, Prachasilchai P, et al. Interventional correction of sinus venosus atrial septal defect and partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage: procedural planning using 3D printed models. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2018;11(2 Pt 1):275–8.
Hansen JH, Duong P, Jivanji SGM, Jones M, Kabir S, Butera G, et al. Transcatheter correction of superior sinus venosus atrial septal defects as an alternative to surgical treatment. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020;75(11):1266–78 Summary of the experience of developing the techniques for catheter-based closure of superior sinus venous atrial septal defects.
Batteux C, Azarine A, Karsenty C, Petit J, Ciobotaru V, Brenot P, et al. Sinus venosus ASDs: imaging and percutaneous closure. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2021;23(10):138.
Hoashi T, Ichikawa H, Nakata T, Shimada M, Ozawa H, Higashida A, et al. Utility of a super-flexible three-dimensional printed heart model in congenital heart surgery. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2018;27(5):749–55.
Illmann CF, Ghadiry-Tavi R, Hosking M, Harris KC. Utility of 3D printed cardiac models in congenital heart disease: a scoping review. Heart. 2020;106(21):1631–7.
Yoo SJ, Hussein N, Peel B, Coles J, van Arsdell GS, Honjo O, et al. 3D modeling and printing in congenital heart surgery: entering the stage of maturation. Front Pediatr. 2021;9:621672.
Nam JG, Lee W, Jeong B, Park EA, Lim JY, Kwak Y, et al. Three-dimensional printing of congenital heart disease models for cardiac surgery simulation: evaluation of surgical skill improvement among inexperienced cardiothoracic surgeons. Korean J Radiol. 2021;22(5):706–13.
Hussein N, Honjo O, Haller C, Coles JG, Hua Z, Van Arsdell G, et al. Quantitative assessment of technical performance during hands-on surgical training of the arterial switch operation using 3-dimensional printed heart models. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2020;160(4):1035–42.
Hussein N, Honjo O, Haller C, Hickey E, Coles JG, Williams WG, et al. Hands-on surgical simulation in congenital heart surgery: literature review and future perspective. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2020;32(1):98–105.
Hussein N, Lim A, Honjo O, Haller C, Coles JG, Van Arsdell G, et al. Development and validation of a procedure-specific assessment tool for hands-on surgical training in congenital heart surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2020;160(1):229–40.e1 Development of objective measures of surgical outcomes to start to be able to quantify the benefits of 3D printed models for procedural outcomes in congenital heart disease interventions.
Grab M, Hopfner C, Gesenhues A, König F, Haas NA, Hagl C, et al. Development and evaluation of 3D-printed cardiovascular phantoms for interventional planning and training. J Vis Exp. 2021;167.
O’Halloran CP, Qadir A, Ramlogan SR, Nugent AW, Tannous P. Deployed dimensions of the GORE® CARDIOFORM ASD occluder as function of defect size. Pediatr Cardiol. 2021;42(5):1209–15.
Boyer PJ, Yell JA, Andrews JG, Seckeler MD. Anxiety reduction after pre-procedure meetings in patients with CHD. Cardiol Young. 2020;1-4.
Kang SL, Shkumat N, Dragulescu A, Guerra V, Padfield N, Krutikov K, et al. Mixed-reality view of cardiac specimens: a new approach to understanding complex intracardiac congenital lesions. Pediatr Radiol. 2020;50(11):1610–6.
Ye W, Zhang X, Li T, Luo C, Yang L. Mixed-reality hologram for diagnosis and surgical planning of double outlet of the right ventricle: a pilot study. Clin Radiol. 2021;76(3):237.e1-.e7. Early use of mixed reality for surgical planning for complex congenital heart disease.
Corno AF, Durairaj S, Skinner GJ. Narrative review of assessing the surgical options for double outlet right ventricle. Transl Pediatr. 2021;10(1):165–76.
Vigil C, Lasso A, Ghosh RM, Pinter C, Cianciulli A, Nam HH, et al. Modeling tool for rapid virtual planning of the intracardiac baffle in double-outlet right ventricle. Ann Thorac Surg. 2021;111(6):2078–83.
Lau I, Gupta A, Sun Z. Clinical value of virtual reality versus 3D printing in congenital heart disease. Biomolecules. 2021;11(6).
Patel N, Costa A, Sanders SP, Ezon D. Stereoscopic virtual reality does not improve knowledge acquisition of congenital heart disease. Int J Card Imaging. 2021;37(7):2283–90.
Gehrsitz P, Rompel O, Schöber M, Cesnjevar R, Purbojo A, Uder M, et al. Cinematic rendering in mixed-reality holograms: a new 3D preoperative planning tool in pediatric heart surgery. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021;8:633611.
Raimondi F, Vida V, Godard C, Bertelli F, Reffo E, Boddaert N, et al. Fast-track virtual reality for cardiac imaging in congenital heart disease. J Card Surg. 2021;36(7):2598–602.
Pushparajah K, Chu KYK, Deng S, Wheeler G, Gomez A, Kabir S, et al. Virtual reality three-dimensional echocardiographic imaging for planning surgical atrioventricular valve repair. JTCVS Tech. 2021;7:269–77.
Brun H, Bugge RAB, Suther LKR, Birkeland S, Kumar R, Pelanis E, et al. Mixed reality holograms for heart surgery planning: first user experience in congenital heart disease. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2019;20(8):883-8.
Cen J, Liufu R, Wen S, Qiu H, Liu X, Chen X, et al. Three-dimensional printing, virtual reality and mixed reality for pulmonary atresia: early surgical outcomes evaluation. Heart Lung Circ. 2021;30(2):296–302.
Gómez-Ciriza G, Gómez-Cía T, Rivas-González JA, Velasco Forte MN, Valverde I. Affordable three-dimensional printed heart models. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021;8:642011 Assessment of the real-world costs of 3D printed model generation and demonstration of the low costs. This will be very important for widespread adoption of 3D models in clinical care.
Ballard DH, Mills P, Duszak R, Weisman JA, Rybicki FJ, Woodard PK. Medical 3D printing cost-savings in orthopedic and maxillofacial surgery: cost analysis of operating room time saved with 3D printed anatomic models and surgical guides. Acad Radiol. 2020;27(8):1103–13.
Vukicevic M, Mosadegh B, Min JK, Little SH. Cardiac 3D printing and its future directions. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2017;10(2):171–84.