Management of Hematuria in Children

Urology (P Reddy and B Vanderbrink, Section Editors)
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Abstract

Purpose of Review

This paper provides a review of the diagnostic evaluation of both microscopic and gross hematuria, as well as an update on the pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment strategies for several diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract in which hematuria is a prominent finding. The goal is to provide pediatric providers with a framework through which appropriate and expeditious referral to subspecialty care may be made for definitive treatment.

Recent Findings

Although there has been great heterogeneity in published treatment strategies for many causes of hematuria, the Kidney Diseases Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) initiative has recently set forth guidelines for glomerular diseases in particular to provide evidence-based strategies for treatment. In addition, recent advances in the understanding of molecular pathogenesis and long-term clinical outcomes for other non-glomerular diseases have led to updates in treatment strategies summarized in this review.

Summary

As the pediatric primary care provider is often the first point of contact for children with microscopic or gross hematuria, updated knowledge as to the epidemiology and management of several of the various causes of hematuria will improve the care of children by both avoiding extraneous testing and interventions and implementing definitive care (either by expectant management and reassurance or by subspecialty referral) in a timely manner.

Keywords

Microscopic hematuria Gross hematuria Glomerular diseases Structural renal disease 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

O. N. Ray Bignall II and Bradley P. Dixon declare no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Nephrology and HypertensionCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Renal Section, Department of PediatricsUniversity of Colorado School of MedicineAuroraUSA

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