Epistaxis in Children: Evaluation and Management
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Purpose of review
To review treatment options for patients with both ongoing acute epistaxis and chronic recurring epistaxis.
While a common occurrence, epistaxis can successfully be treated with adequate first aid, without a medical provider in most cases. Despite its common nature, widespread knowledge of appropriate first aid is lacking. Recurrent episodes may require further testing depending on the severity. Although a minority of patients referred to specialists have significant underlying pathology, there is little guidance in the literature to help inform practitioners regarding which patients warrant referral. While treatment options for idiopathic pediatric recurrent epistaxis is not currently an active area of research, investigators are actively pursuing novel treatments for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and endoscopic surgery for juvenile nasal angiofibroma (two rare causes of recurrent epistaxis).
Epistaxis is a common problem in the pediatric population which can lead to patient and family distress. Knowledge of appropriate treatment pathways is lacking and an area for improvement. Epistaxis that persists despite conventional treatment, or epistaxis in the context of a family history of excessive bleeding or a personal history of other sources of recurrent bleeding, may warrant additional evaluation.
KeywordsEpistaxis Pediatric epistaxis Recurrent epistaxis Idiopathic epistaxis
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Colin Fuller declares that he has no conflict of interest.
J. Drew Prosser declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
References and Recommended Reading
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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