This study aims to identify the relationship between caregiver burden of patients with schizophrenia and caregiver quality of life (QOL). A cross sectional study involving 222 caregivers patients with schizophrenia was conveniently recruited from the psychiatric clinic of a mental health hospital in Malang Indonesia. Caregiver Burden Inventory Scale and Schizophrenia Caregiver QOL was used to assess the level of burden and QOL among the caregivers respectively. Descriptive statistics was used to determine caregivers’ socio-demographic characteristic and the level of caregivers’ burden and QOL. Spearman Rho correlation test was conducted to determine the relationship of caregiver burden and caregiver QOL. About 59.6% of schizophrenia caregivers experienced moderate to severe level of burden. The results showed that there was a significant, strong and negative relationship between the caregiver burden and QOL (r = − 0.434, p < 0.001). Most of the participants reported emotional burden and moderate QOL especially psychological and physical QOL, well-being, relationships with friends, and material burden. The findings indicated the higher the caregiver burden, the lower the QOL experienced by family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia. It is necessary to improve the mental health nursing services for schizophrenia caregivers by providing mental health counseling, and developing support groups for them.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Alzahrani SH, Fallata EO, Alabdulwahab MA, Alsafi WA, Bashawri J. Assessment of the burden on caregivers of patients with mental disorders in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. BMC Psychiatry. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-017-1368-1.
Awadalla AW, Ohaeri JU, Salih AA, Tawfiq AM. Subjective quality of life of community living sudanese psychiatric patients: comparison with family caregivers’ impressions and control group. Qual Life Res. 2005;14(8):1855–67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-005-4328-z.
Bademli K, Duman ZE. Effects of a family-to-family support program on the mental health and coping strategies of caregivers of adults with mental illness: a randomized controlled study. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2014;28(6):392–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2014.08.011.
Caqueo-Urízar A, Alessandrini M, Urzúa A, Zendjidjian X, Boyer L, Williams DR. Caregiver’s quality of life and its positive impact on symptomatology and quality of life of patients with schizophrenia. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-017-0652-6.
Caqueo-Urízar A, Urzúa A, Jamett PR, Irarrazaval M. Objective and subjective burden in relatives of patients with schizophrenia and its influence on care relationships in Chile. Psychiatry Res. 2016;237:361–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.01.013.
Dalky H, Qandil A, Natour A, Janet M. Quality of life, stigma and burden perception among family caregivers and patients with psychiatric illnesses in Jordan. Community Ment Health J. 2017;53(3):266–74. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-016-0028-0.
Efendi F, Makhfudli M. Keperawatan Kesehatan Komunitas Teori dan Praktik dalam Keperawatan. Jakarta: Salemba Medika; 2009.
Farkhah L, Suryani S, Hernawaty T. Faktor Caregiver dan Kekambuhan Klien Skizofrenia. Padjadjaran Nurs J. 2017. https://doi.org/10.24198/jkp.v5i1.348.g149.
Friedemann M-L, Buckwalter KC. Family caregiver role and burden related to gender and family relationships. J Fam Nurs. 2014;20(3):313–36. https://doi.org/10.1177/1074840714532715.
Hanzawa S, Tanaka G, Inadomi H, Urata M, Ohta Y. Burden and coping strategies in mothers of patients with schizophrenia in Japan. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008;62(3):256–63.
Hernandez M, Barrio C. Perceptions of subjective burden among latino families caring for a loved one with schizophrenia. Community Ment Health J. 2015;51(8):939–48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-015-9881-5.
Jeyagurunathan A, et al. Psychological status and quality of life among primary caregivers of individuals with mental illness: a hospital based study. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017;15(1):106. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-017-0676-y.
Kumar R, Saini R. Extent of burden and coping strategies among caregivers of mentally-ill patients. Nurs Midwifery Res J. 2012;8(4):274–84.
Lua P, Bakar Z. Health-related quality of life profiles among family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Fam Community Health. 2011;34:331–9.
Martin J, Padierna A, Aguirre U. Predictors of quality of life and caregiver burden among maternal and paternal Caregivers of patients with eating disorders. Psychiatry Res. 2013;210(3):1107–15.
Masa’Deh R. Perceived stress in family caregivers of individuals with mental illness. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2017;55(6):30–5. https://doi.org/10.3928/02793695-20170519-04.
Nihayati HE, Mukhalladah DA, Krisnana I. Pengalaman Keluarga Merawat Klien Gangguan Jiwa Pasca Pasung. Jurnal Ners. 2016;11(2):283–7. https://doi.org/10.20473/jn.V11I22016.283-287.
Özyeşil Z, Oluk A, Çakmak D. State and trait anxiety levels of load procedure giving care to elderly patients. Anatol J Psychiatr Nurs. 2014;15:39–44.
Pharr JR, Francis CD, Terry C, Clark MC. Culture, caregiving, and health: exploring the influence of culture on family caregiver experiences. ISRN Public Health. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/689826.
Ravi S, Goud B, Archana M, Pius T, Pal A, John V. Burden among caregivers of mentally-ill patients: a rural community-based study community medicine. Int J Res Dev Health. 2013;1:29–34.
Ribé J, Salamero M, Pérez-Testor C, Mercadal J, Aguilera C, Cleris M. Quality of life in family caregivers of schizophrenia patients in Spain: caregiver characteristics, caregiving burden, family functioning, and social and professional support. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2017;22(1):25–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/13651501.2017.1360500.
Richieri R, Boyer L, Reine G, Loundou A, Auquier P, Lancon C, Simeoni MC. The Schizophrenia Caregiver Quality of Life questionnaire (S-CGQoL): development and validation of an instrument to measure quality of life of caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2011;126(1–3):192–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2010.08.037.
Rofail D, Regnault A, le Scouiller S, Lambert J, Zarit SH. Assessing the impact on caregivers of patients with schizophrenia: psychometric validation of the Schizophrenia Caregiver Questionnaire (SCQ). BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16(1):245. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-016-0951-1.
Sagut P, Çetinkaya Duman Z. Comparison of caregiver burden in first episode versus chronic psychosis. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2016;30(6):768–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2016.07.011.
Sanjaya U. Hubungan Antara Caregiver Burden Dengan Kualitas Hidup Family Caregiver Pasien Gangguan Mental Berat yang Mengalami Pemasungan di Kabupaten Ponorogo. Surabaya: Universitas Airlangga; 2016.
Shah AJ, Wadoo O, Latoo J. Psychological distress in carers of people with mental disorders. Br J Med Pract. 2010;3(3):327.
Soebiantoro J. Pengaruh Edukasi Kesehatan Mental Intensif Terhadap Stigma pada Pengguna Layanan Kesehatan Mental. Jurnal Psikologi Dan Kesehatan Mental. 2017;52:1–14. https://doi.org/10.20473/jpkm.v2i12017.1-21.
Stanley S, Balakrishnan S, Ilangovan S. Psychological distress, perceived burden and quality of life in caregivers of persons with schizophrenia. J Ment Health. 2017;26(2):134–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638237.2016.1276537.
Suhita BM. The adaptation model of caregiver in treating family members with schizophrenia in Kediri East Java. Jurnal Ners. 2017;12(37):74–80.
Testart J, Richieri R, Caqueo-Urízar A, Lancon C, Auquier P, Boyer L. Quality of life and other outcome measures in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2013;13(5):641–9. https://doi.org/10.1586/14737167.2013.838022.
Tristiana RD, Yusuf A, Fitryasari R, Wahyuni SD, Nihayati HE. Perceived barriers on mental health services by the family of patients with mental illness. Int J Nurs Sci. 2018;5(1):63–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2017.12.003.
Vania IW, Dewi KS. Hubungan Antara Dukungan Sosial Dengan Psychological Well-Being Caregiver Penderita Gangguan Skizofrenia. Skripsi: Universitas Airlangga; 2014.
Vitaliano P, Zhang J, Scanlan J. Is caregiving hazardous to one’s physical health? A meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2003;129(6):946–72.
Winahyu, K. M., Hemchayat, M., & Charoensuk, S. (2014). The Relationship between characteristic of caregivers and quality of life among family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Indonesia. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314759039_The_Relationships_between_Characteristics_of_Caregivers_and_Quality_of_Life_of_Family_Caregivers_of_Patients_with_Schizophrenia_in_Indonesia. Accessed Feb 2019.
World Health Organization. (2015). Mental health. Retrieved March 2, 2019, from https://www.who.int/mental_health/management/schizophrenia/en/.
Yu Y, Liu Z, Tang B, Zhao M, Liu X, Xiao S. Reported family burden of schizophrenia patients in rural China. PLoS ONE. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179425.
Yusuf A, Putra ST, Probowati Y. Peningkatan Coping Kelurga Dalam Merawat Pasien Gangguan Jiwa Melalui Terapi Spiritual Direction, Obedience Dan Acceptance (Doa). Jurnal Ners. 2012;7(2):198–202.
Zahid MA, Ohaeri JU. Relationship of family caregiver burden with quality of care and psychopathology in a sample of Arab subjects with schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-10-71.
Zhou Y, et al. Effect of living with patients on caregiver burden of individual with schizophrenia in China. Psychiatry Res. 2016;245:230–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.08.046.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Tristiana, R.D., Triantoro, B., Nihayati, H.E. et al. Relationship Between Caregivers’ Burden of Schizophrenia Patient with Their Quality of Life in Indonesia. J. Psychosoc. Rehabil. Ment. Health 6, 141–148 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40737-019-00144-w
- Caregiver burden
- Caregiver quality of life