Surface Modification of Fly Ash Concrete Through Nanophase Incorporation for Enhanced Chemical Deterioration Resistance

  • Sudha Uthaman
  • R. P. George
  • Vinita Vishwakarma
  • D. Ramachandran
  • C. Thinaharan
  • K. Viswanathan
  • U. Kamachi Mudali
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Surface Modifications and Coatings


The global warming gas, CO2, is liberated when clay and limestone are crumbled for the production of cement. About 8–10% of the universal CO2 emissions are emitting from the cement factories. With concerns arising over environmental issues associated with cement usage, it is the need of the hour to reduce its consumption. Fly ash, the waste material from thermal power plants, is a widely used supplementary cementitious material that extends the life of the concrete structures. The intervening of nanotechnology into construction industry has provided wider opportunities to better the performance of concrete in rigorous conditions, especially acids and alkali environment. This work endeavours to study the effect of surface-modified fly ash concrete through the addition of nanoparticles against sulphate attack and calcium leaching. Nanophase modification was performed by integrating nano-TiO2 and CaCO3 for enhanced durability and corrosion resistance. Four types of concrete mix, namely fly ash concrete (FA), FA with 2% TiO2 nanoparticles (FAT), FA with 2% CaCO3 nanoparticles and FA with 2% TiO2:CaCO3 (FATC) nanoparticles, were designed and casted as cylindrical concrete blocks. The specimens were immersed in 1% sulphuric acid solution and sea water to study the resistance of concrete against sulphate attack and calcium leaching, respectively. Results showed that nanophase modification of fly ash concrete improved the resistance to sulphuric acid attack and calcium leaching. Among the nanophase-modified specimens, FAT and FATC specimens showed superior performance.


Concrete Surface modification Nanoparticles Deterioration Sulphate attack Calcium leaching 



Financial support from Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), Mumbai (2013/36/33-BRNS/2355), is greatly acknowledged. The authors sincerely thank Chancellor, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai and Director, IGCAR, Kalpakkam for their guidance, encouragement and motivation.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sudha Uthaman
    • 1
  • R. P. George
    • 2
  • Vinita Vishwakarma
    • 1
  • D. Ramachandran
    • 1
  • C. Thinaharan
    • 2
  • K. Viswanathan
    • 1
  • U. Kamachi Mudali
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Nanoscience and NanotechnologySathyabama Institute of Science and TechnologyChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Corrosion Science and Technology GroupIGCARKalpakkamIndia
  3. 3.Heavy Water BoardMumbaiIndia

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