# Optimization of Process Parameters to Study the Influence of the Friction in Tube Hydroforming

• Smita P. Rudraksha
• Shravan H. Gawande
Article

## Abstract

Tube hydroforming (THF) is a well-known metal forming technology. This technology enables the manufacturing of a variety of intricate shape parts used in automobile industry. Tribology plays an important role in THF, required in the automobile industry. THF process is influenced by many process parameters. Friction between outer surface of the tube and the inner surface of the die is significant and influences the process parameters and quality of components. The aim of the proposed work is to optimize the different process parameters which influence the coefficient of friction in the THF using mathematical model based upon the tube upsetting method. Influence of friction on process parameters, mainly inner pressure and wall thickness, is analyzed and optimized. The proposed mathematical model is verified by comparison of coefficient of friction with original values for Steel35NBK and AlMgSi materials. COF (μ) decreases from 0.15 to 0.0289 for Steel35NBK and from 0.1 to 0.0136 for AlMgSi after optimization of initial tube thickness, S 0 = 3.5 mm and pressure p i = 142.9554 MPa for Steel35NBK and pressure p i = 143.5730 MPa for AlMgSi.

## Keywords

Coefficient of friction (COF) Tube hydroforming (THF) Tube upsetting Tribology

## List of symbols

da

Outer diameter of the tube before deformation (mm)

di

Inner diameter of the tube before deformation (mm)

di1

Punch-side inner diameter after deformation (mm)

di2

Inner diameter of tube at the side of a fixed punch after deformation (mm)

F1

Force by punch (N)

F2

Reaction force from die end (N)

FR

Force due to friction between wall and tube (N)

H

Height of tube after deformation (mm)

H0

Height of tube before deformation (mm)

pi

Inner pressure of tube (N/mm2)

S0

Thickness of tube before deformation (mm)

S1

Thickness of wall on the side of movable punch (mm)

S2

Thickness of wall on the side of fixed punch (mm)

## Notes

### Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

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