Corrosion and Wear Properties of Ti/Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon Multilayered Coating

Article
  • 75 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Surface Modifications and Coatings

Abstract

The titanium and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (Ti/ta-C) multilayered coating has been deposited by combination of cathodic arc evaporation and magnetron sputtering employing graphite and titanium targets with constant substrate bias voltage of −110 V. Coating has been developed with titanium and tetrahedral amorphous carbon alternatively on silicon and stainless steel 202 substrates with total thickness of 936 nm. The coating has been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Coating properties have been investigated by nanoindentation, potentiodynamic polarization and reciprocating wear studies. Observed average hardness values of the multilayered coating are 15.6 ± 1.7 and 17 ± 3.6 GPa at 1 and 2 mN loads, respectively. The Ti/ta-C multilayered coating exhibits enhanced corrosion resistance with better passive behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution, and corrosion potential is observed to move more positive values. The reciprocating wear studies demonstrate very low coefficient of friction of 0.07−0.2 at 2, 5, 7 and 10 N loads.

Keywords

Ti/ta-C multilayer XPS Corrosion EIS Wear 

References

  1. 1.
    Robertson J (1991) Hard amorphous (diamond-like) carbons. Prog Solid State Chem 21:199–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Robertson J (1992) Properties of diamond-like carbon. Surf Coat Technol 50:185–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fallon PJ, Veerasamy VS, Davis CA, Robertson J, Amaratunga GAJ, Milne WI, Koskinen J (1993) Properties of filtered-ion-beam-deposited diamond like carbon as a function of ion energy. Phys Rev B 48:4777–4782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lifshitz Y (1996) Hydrogen-free amorphous carbon films: correlation between growth conditions and properties. Diamond Relat Mater 5:388–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    McKenzie DR (1996) Tetrahedral bonding in amorphous carbon. Rep Prog Phys 59:1611–1664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    McKenzie DR, Muller D, Pailthorpe BA, Wang ZH, Kravtchinskaia E, Segal D, Gaskell PH (1991) Properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon prepared by vacuum arc deposition. Diamond Relat Mater 1:51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Veerasamy VS, Amaratunga GAJ, Milne WI, Hewitt P, Fallon PJ, McKenzie DR, Davis CA (1993) Optical and electronic properties of amorphous diamond. Diamond Relat Mater 2:782–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Satyanarayana BS, Hart A, Milne WI, Robertson J (1998) Field emission from tetrahedral amorphous carbon. Diamond Relat Mater 7:656–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aksenov II, Vakula SI, Padalka VG, Strelnitskii VE, Khoroshikh VM (1980) High-efficiency source of pure carbon plasma. Zh Tekh Fiz 50:2000–2004Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Coll BF, Chhowalla M (1996) Amorphous diamond film by enhanced arc deposition. Surf Coat Technol 79:76–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boxman RL, Zhitomirsky V, Alterkop B, Gidalevich E, Beilis I, Keidar M, Goldsmith S (1996) Recent progress in filtered vacuum arc deposition. Surf Coat Technol 86:243–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Polo MC, Andujar JL, Hart A, Robertson J, Milne WI (2000) Preparation of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition. Diamond Relat Mater 9:663–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Inaba H, Furusawa K, Hirano S, Sasaki S, Todoroki S, Yamasaka M, Endou M (2003) Tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by filtered cathodic vacuum-arc deposition for air-bearing-surface overcoat. Jpn J Appl Phys 42:2824–2828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kok YN, Hovsepian PE, Luo Q, Lewis DB, Wen JG, Petrov I (2005) Influence of the bias voltage on the structure and the tribological performance of nanoscale multilayer C/Cr PVD coatings. Thin Solid Films 475:219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yi P, Peng L, Zhou T, Wu H, Lai X (2013) Development and characterization of multilayered Cr–C/aC: Cr film on 316L stainless steel as bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. J Power Sources 230:25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chang YY, Wang DY, Wu W (2002) Catalysis effect of metal doping on wear properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by a cathodic-arc activated deposition process. Thin Solid Films 420:241–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lin YH, Lin HD, Liu CK, Huang MW, Chen YC, Chen JR, Shih HC (2009) Annealing effect on the structural, mechanical and electrical properties of titanium-doped diamond-like carbon films. Thin Solid Films 518:1503–1507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kulikovsky VY, Fendrych F, Jastrabik L, Chvostova D (1997) Study of formation and some properties of Ti–C: H films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. Surf Coat Technol 91:122–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Singer IL (1992) Solid lubrication processes. In: Singer IL, Pollock HM (eds) Fundamentals of friction: macroscopic and microscopic processes. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 237–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhao F, Li H, Ji L, Wang Y, Zhou H, Chen J (2010) Ti-DLC films with superior friction performance. Diamond Relat Mater 19:342–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cui J, Qiang L, Zhang B, Ling X, Yang T, Zhang J (2012) Mechanical and tribological properties of Ti-DLC films with different Ti content by magnetron sputtering technique. Appl Surf Sci 258:5025–5030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Qiang L, Zhang B, Zhou Y, Zhang J (2013) Improving the internal stress and wear resistance of DLC film by low content Ti doping. Solid State Sci 20:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ziegele H, Scheibe HJ, Schultrich B (1997) DLC and metallic nanometer multilayers deposited by laser-arc. Surf Coat Technol 97:385–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bootkul D, Saenphinit N, Supsermpol B, Aramwit C, Intarasiri S (2014) Synthesis of Ti-doped DLC film on SS304 steels by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technique for tribological improvement. Appl Surf Sci 310:293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lin YH, Lin HD, Liu CK, Huang MW, Chen JR, Shih HC (2010) Structure and characterization of the multilayered Ti-DLC films by FCVA. Diamond Relat Mater 19:1034–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weng KW, Chen YC, Lin TN, Wang DY (2006) Metal-doped diamond-like carbon films synthesized by filter-arc deposition. Thin Solid Films 515:1053–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Anttila A, Salo J, Lappalaimen R (1995) High adhesion of diamond-like films achieved by pulsed arc-discharge method. Mater Lett 24:153–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wu WY, Ting JM (2006) Growth and characteristics of metal-containing diamond-like carbon using a self-assembled process. Carbon 44:1210–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Meng WJ, Curtis TJ, Rehn LE, Baldo PM (1998) Plasma-assisted deposition and characterization of Ti-containing diamond like carbon coatings. J Appl Phys 83:6076–6081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wu WJ, Hon MH (1999) Thermal stability of diamond-like carbon films with added silicon. Surf Coat Technol 111:134–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cho YK, Jang WS, Yoo S, Kim SG, Kim SW (2008) Synthesis of conductive Ti–C: H films on the stainless steel plates by PECVD process. Surf Coat Technol 202:5390–5394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Weng KW, Chang CL, Wang DY (2002) Effect of ion energy on degradation of diamond-like carbon films exposed to high-energy bombardment from an ion implanter. Diamond Relat Mater 11:1447–1453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Byon E, Kim JK, Rha JJ, Kwon SC, Mu Z, Liu C, Li G (2007) Effect of metal ion implantation on thermal instability of diamond-like carbon films. Surf Coat Technol 201:6670–6673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cui L, Guoqing L, Wenwu C, Zongxin M, Chengwu Z, Liang W (2005) The study of doped DLC films by Ti ion implantation. Thin Solid Films 475:279–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Baba K, Hatada R (2003) Deposition and characterization of Ti-and W-containing diamond-like carbon films by plasma source ion implantation. Surf Coat Technol 169:287–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    ASTM G102-89 (1999) Standard practice for calculation of corrosion rates and related information from electrochemical measurementsGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lakshmi RV, Yoganandan G, Kavya KT, Basu BJ (2013) Effective corrosion inhibition performance of Ce3+ doped sol-gel nanocomposite coating on aluminium alloy. Prog Org Coat 76:367–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stern M, Geary AL (1957) Electrochemical polarization I: a theoretical analysis of the shape of polarization curves. J Electrochem Soc 104:56–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mohan L, Anandan C, Grips VW (2012) Corrosion behavior of titanium alloy Beta-21S coated with diamond like carbon in Hank’s solution. Appl Surf Sci 258:6331–6340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mohan L, Anandan C (2013) Wear and corrosion behavior of oxygen implanted biomedical titanium alloy Ti–13Nb–13Zr. Appl Surf Sci 282:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kumar P, Babu PD, Mohan L, Anandan C, Grips VW (2013) Wear and corrosion behavior of Zr-doped DLC on Ti–13Zr–13Nb biomedical alloy. J Mater Eng Perform 22:283–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    De Oliveira RRL, Albuquerque DAC, Cruz TG, Yamaji FM, Leite FL (2012) Measurement of nanoscale roughness by atomic force microscopy: basic principles and applications. In: Bellitto V (ed) Atomic force microscopy: imaging, measuring and manipulating surfaces at the atomic scale. In Tech, RijekaGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tai FC, Lee SC, Chen J, Wei C, Chang SH (2009) Multipeak fitting analysis of Raman spectra on DLCH film. J Raman Spectrosc 40:1055–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Richter A, Scheibe HJ, Pompe W, Brzezinka KW, Mühling I (1986) About the structure and bonding of laser generated carbon films by Raman and electron energy loss spectroscopy. J Non-Cryst Solids 88:131–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lin YH, Lin HD, Liu CK, Huang MW, Chen YC, Chen JR, Shih HC (2009) Annealing effect on the structural, mechanical and electrical properties of titanium-doped diamond-like carbon films. Thin Solid Films 518:1503–1507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Li F, Zhang S, Kong J, Zhang Y, Zhang W (2011) Multilayer DLC coatings via alternating bias during magnetron sputtering. Thin Solid Films 519:4910–4916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zhang S, Fu YQ, Bui XL, Du HJ (2004) XPS study of diamond-like carbon-based nanocomposite films. Int J Nanosci 3:797–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Santra S, Ranjan P, Bera P, Ghosh P, Mandal SK (2012) Anchored palladium nanoparticles onto single walled carbon nanotubes: efficient recyclable catalyst for N-containing heterocycles. RSC Adv 2:7523–7533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Younesi R, Norby P, Vegge T (2014) A new look at the stability of dimethyl sulfoxide and acetonitrile in Li–O2 batteries. ECS Electrochem Lett 3:A15–A18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Navas J, Sánchez-Coronilla A, Aguilar T, Hernández NC, de los Santos DM, Sánchez-Márquez J, Zorrilla D, Fernández-Lorenzo C, Alcántara R, Martín-Calleja J (2014) Experimental and theoretical study of the electronic properties of Cu-doped anatase TiO2. Phys Chem Chem Phys 16:3835–3845CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Viswanathan
    • 1
  • M. Manjunath Reddy
    • 1
  • L. Mohan
    • 1
  • Parthasarathi Bera
    • 1
  • Harish C. Barshilia
    • 1
  • C. Anandan
    • 1
  1. 1.Surface Engineering DivisionCSIR-National Aerospace LaboratoriesBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations